Maize cobs separate into nutritionally distinct, different sized particles comprising of a hard or woody fraction and a soft fraction consisting of glumes
, core, grain clippings and fine dust when ground.
are sterile, the lowest fertile glume
bears a pistillate
Among the evaluated phonological traits, the number of days to the spike emergence (the interval between cultivation to spike emergence in each of the experimental units) were recorded, the number of days up to flowering (the interval between cultivation to stamen emergence in the spikes of experimental units) were recorded, the number of days up to physiological maturation (Perfect loss of green color of glumes
and their yellowing were considered as a criterion to determine the time of physiological maturation)  and the number of days from cultivation time up to this stage was recorded) and grain filling period (the number of days from flowering up to physiological maturation represented the grain filling period).
In Moldova, Yanushevich seems to have taken the shape and size of broomcorn millet spikelet imprints with glumes
and lemmas as the main criteria for identification.
Sorghum grains collected were cleaned to remove stones, dust and light materials, glumes
and stalks, and broken, undersized and immature grains.
No difference was noted between control and source:sink manipulated plants for allocation of dry matter to straw of spike at the beginning of rapid grain filling stage, but maximum straw of spike dry matter after anthesis significantly decreased after source:sink manipulation (Tables 1 and 2), indicating that glumes
and awns can be effective on grain growth during first half of seed filling period, but after this period, demand of kernel needs a stronger dry matter supporter, i.
Plump brown seeds that shell out easily from dry, whitish glumes
or chaff indicate full maturity.
On the other hand, more than half the food ingested was plant material, mainly belonging to seeds, glumes
, chaff, and cereal leaves of Triticum (FO % = 31.
Through this process, grains become detached from glumes
, lemmas and spikelet forks, the latter of which often break into two glume
bases (Hillman 1981: fig.
Luzuloidei (Guarise & Vegetti, 2007), all the glumes
have a distichous arrangement (1/2 phyllotaxis), except for the prophyll.
Sorghum grain samples were cleaned to remove stones, dust and light materials, glumes
, stalks, and broken, undersized and immature grains.
sterilis) fruits/grains, but not the glumes
that remain on the plant.