However, several newer mechanisms of action are now attracting serious attention from the industry, including CC chemokine receptor 5 antagonism, gp120
inhibition and HIV integrase inhibition, with 11, 11 and 7 candidates, respectively.
The results of many small, independent clinical studies suggest that therapeutic vaccines containing proteins called gp120
and gp160, cloned from HIV's outer shell, might slow or stop the progress of HIV in people already infected with the virus.
The studies will also identify the capture rate of gp120
, a toxin shed from the surface of HIV, which causes apoptosis (programmed cell death) of immune cells.
Human in-vitro blood studies have documented a rapid capture of circulating HIV and gp120
, a toxic surface protein known to deplete the immune T-cells required to fight off infection.
Two chimpanzees vaccintated with gp120
, a protein from the AIDS virus' outer coat, remain free of infection more than six months after subsequent injection with the deadly virus, report researchers from Genentech, Inc.
DP6-001 is composed of a polyvalent DNA primer followed by a multivalent gp120
Brain cells, like immune system cells, have so-called CD4 receptors on their outer membranes, which serve as "docking sites" for HIV's gp120
Viral proteins, in particular gp120
and nucleocapsid proteins, are retained in their native and functional state.
That protein, called gp120
, serves as a molecular marker of an otherwise clandestine HIV factory.
Integrase and several viral and host proteins involved in viral entry (CCR5, gp120
, gp41, and CD4) appear to be the most promising emerging targets for the next generation of HIV therapeutics.
The study investigated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of BMS-488043 -- a novel, oral small-molecule attachment inhibitor of HIV-1 that blocks viral entry by binding to the viral envelope protein gp120
and preventing it from binding to cellular CD4 receptors.
Only after the protein is cleaved into gp120
and gp41 components is the AIDS virus able to bind to and inflect other white blood cells.