grammar


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gram·mar

 (grăm′ər)
n.
1.
a. The study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences.
b. The study of structural relationships in language or in a language, sometimes including pronunciation, meaning, and linguistic history.
2.
a. The system of inflections, syntax, and word formation of a language.
b. The system of rules implicit in a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible in that language.
3.
a. A normative or prescriptive set of rules setting forth the current standard of usage for pedagogical or reference purposes.
b. Writing or speech judged with regard to such a set of rules.
4. A book containing the morphologic, syntactic, and semantic rules for a specific language.
5.
a. The basic principles of an area of knowledge: the grammar of music.
b. A book dealing with such principles.

[Middle English gramere, from Old French gramaire, alteration of Latin grammatica, from Greek grammatikē, from feminine of grammatikos, of letters, from gramma, grammat-, letter; see gerbh- in Indo-European roots.]

grammar

(ˈɡræmə)
n
1. (Grammar) the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology, sometimes also phonology and semantics
2. (Grammar) the abstract system of rules in terms of which a person's mastery of his native language can be explained
3. (Grammar) a systematic description of the grammatical facts of a language
4. (Grammar) a book containing an account of the grammatical facts of a language or recommendations as to rules for the proper use of a language
5. (Grammar)
a. the use of language with regard to its correctness or social propriety, esp in syntax: the teacher told him to watch his grammar.
b. (as modifier): a grammar book.
6. the elementary principles of a science or art: the grammar of drawing.
[C14: from Old French gramaire, from Latin grammatica, from Greek grammatikē (tekhnē) the grammatical (art), from grammatikos concerning letters, from gramma letter]
ˈgrammarless adj

gram•mar

(ˈgræm ər)

n.
1. the study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed, esp. the study of morphology and syntax.
2. these features or constructions themselves: English grammar.
3. an account of these features; a set of rules accounting for these constructions: a grammar of English.
4. (in generative grammar) a device, as a set of rules, whose output is all the sentences that are permissible in a given language, while excluding those that are not permissible.
5. the exposition or establishment of rules based on norms of correct and incorrect language usage; prescriptive grammar.
6. knowledge or usage of the preferred or prescribed forms in speaking or writing: His grammar was terrible.
7. the elements of any science, art, or subject.
8. a book treating such elements.
[1325–75; < Old French gramaire < Latin grammatica < Greek grammatikḕ (téchnē) grammatical (art)]

Grammar


the aspect of grammar that deals with inflections and word order.
1. an ambiguity of language.
2. a word, phrase, or sentence that can be interpreted variously because of uncertainty of grammatical construction rather than ambiguity of the words used, as “John met his father when he was sick.” Also amphibologism, amphiboly.amphibological, amphibolous, adj.
a lack of grammatical sequence or coherence, as “He ate cereal, fruit, and went to the store.” Also anacoluthia.anacoluthic, adj.
a repetition of words to resume the sense after a long parenthetical digression. See also rhetoric and rhetorical devices.
the substitution of one grammatical case for another, e.g., use of the nominative where the vocative would normally occur. — antiptotic, adj.
the clause that expresses the consequence in a conditional sentence. Cf. protasis.
Medicine. a neurological defect resulting in an inability to use words in grammatical sequence.
1. the study of the principles by which a language or languages function in producing meaningful units of expression.
2. knowledge of the preferred forms of expression and usage in language. See also linguistics. — grammarian, n.grammatical, adj.
1. Rare. the principles of the study of grammar followed by a grammarian.
2. excessive emphasis upon the fine points of grammar and usage, especially as a shibboleth; dedication to the doctrine of correctness; grammatism.
a principle or a point of grammar.
excessively pedantic behavior about grammatical standards and principles. — grammatist, n.
arrangement of thoughts by subordination in grammatical construction. Cf. parataxis. — hypotactic, adj.
Rare. a word or phrase that violates the rules of grammar. — ingrammatically, adj.
1. a declension, conjugation, etc. that provides all the inflectional forms and serves as a model or example for all others.
2. any model or example. — paradigmatic, paradigmatical, adj.
arrangement of thoughts as coordinate units in grammatical construction. Cf. hypotaxis.paratactic, adj.
referring to the ability in some languages to use function words instead of inflections, as “the hair of the dog” for “dog’s hair.” — periphrasis, n.
a clause containing the condition in a conditional sentence. Cf. apodosis. See also drama; wisdom and foolishness. — protatic, adj.
a violation of conventional usage and grammar, as “I are sixty year old.” — solecist, n.solecistic, solecistical, adj.
the use of a word or expression to perform two syntactic functions, especially to apply to two or more words of which at least one does not agree in logic, number, case, or gender, as in Pope’s line “See Pan with flocks, with fruits Pomona crowned.” — sylleptic, sylleptical, adj.
the practice of using a grammatical construction that conforms with meaning rather than with strict regard for syntax, such as a plural form of a verb following a singular subject that has a plural meaning.
the grammatical principles by which words are used in phrases and sentences to construct meaningful combinations. — syntactic, syntactical, adj.

grammar

The way in which elements of a language are put together to make sentences, or the study of the structure of a language.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.grammar - the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)grammar - the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)
linguistics - the scientific study of language
descriptive grammar - a grammar that is produced by descriptive linguistics
prescriptive grammar - a grammar that is produced by prescriptive linguistics
syntax - studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences
morphology - studies of the rules for forming admissible words
descriptive linguistics - a description (at a given point in time) of a language with respect to its phonology and morphology and syntax and semantics without value judgments
head word, head - (grammar) the word in a grammatical constituent that plays the same grammatical role as the whole constituent
quantifier - (grammar) a word that expresses a quantity (as `fifteen' or `many')
grammatical category, syntactic category - (grammar) a category of words having the same grammatical properties
subject - (grammar) one of the two main constituents of a sentence; the grammatical constituent about which something is predicated
object - (grammar) a constituent that is acted upon; "the object of the verb"
grammatical constituent, constituent - (grammar) a word or phrase or clause forming part of a larger grammatical construction
clause - (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
article - (grammar) a determiner that may indicate the specificity of reference of a noun phrase
modify, qualify - add a modifier to a constituent
parse - analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence)
agree - show grammatical agreement; "Subjects and verbs must always agree in English"
dynamic, active - (used of verbs (e.g. `to run') and participial adjectives (e.g. `running' in `running water')) expressing action rather than a state of being
stative - ( used of verbs (e.g. `be' or `own') and most participial adjectives) expressing existence or a state rather than an action
active - expressing that the subject of the sentence has the semantic function of actor: "Hemingway favors active constructions"
passive - expressing that the subject of the sentence is the patient of the action denoted by the verb; "academics seem to favor passive sentences"
attributive, prenominal - of adjectives; placed before the nouns they modify; "`red' is an attributive adjective in `a red apple'"
predicative - of adjectives; relating to or occurring within the predicate of a sentence; "`red' is a predicative adjective in `the apple is red'"
coordinating, coordinative - serving to connect two grammatical constituents of identical construction; "`and' in `John and Mary' or in `John walked and Mary rode' is a coordinating conjunction; and so is `or' in `will you go or stay?'"
subordinating, subordinative - serving to connect a subordinate clause to a main clause; "`when' in `I will come when I can' is a subordinating conjunction"
main, independent - (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence; "the main (or independent) clause in a complex sentence has at least a subject and a verb"
dependent, subordinate - (of a clause) unable to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence; "a subordinate (or dependent) clause functions as a noun or adjective or adverb within a sentence"
descriptive - describing the structure of a language; "descriptive grammar"
prescriptive, normative - pertaining to giving directives or rules; "prescriptive grammar is concerned with norms of or rules for correct usage"
endocentric - fulfilling the grammatical role of one of its constituents; "when `three blind mice' serves as a noun it is an endocentric construction"
exocentric - not fulfilling the same grammatical role of any of its constituents; "when `until last Easter' serves as an adverb it is an exocentric construction"
finite - of verbs; relating to forms of the verb that are limited in time by a tense and (usually) show agreement with number and person
non-finite, infinite - of verbs; having neither person nor number nor mood (as a participle or gerund or infinitive); "infinite verb form"
syndetic - connected by a conjunction
asyndetic - lacking conjunctions
transitive - designating a verb that requires a direct object to complete the meaning
intransitive - designating a verb that does not require or cannot take a direct object
aoristic - of or relating to the aorist tense
nominal - pertaining to a noun or to a word group that functions as a noun; "nominal phrase"; "noun phrase"
nominative - serving as or indicating the subject of a verb and words identified with the subject of a copular verb; "nominative noun endings"; "predicate nominative"
accusative, objective - serving as or indicating the object of a verb or of certain prepositions and used for certain other purposes; "objective case"; "accusative endings"
genitive, possessive - serving to express or indicate possession; "possessive pronouns"; "the genitive endings"

grammar

noun syntax, rules of language the basic rules of grammar see grammatical cases
Quotations
"When I split an infinitive, God damn it, I split it so it will stay split" [Raymond Chandler Letter to Edward Weeks]
"This is the sort of English up with which I will not put" [Winston Churchill]
Translations
إستِعْمال قَواعِد اللغَهعِلْم الصَّرْفقَواعِد اللغَهنَحْو
граматика
gramatikamluvnicegramatické chyby
grammatikgrammatik-sprogbrug
kielioppi
gramatikaslovnica
nyelvtannyelvhelyesség
málfræîimálfræîibókmálnotkun
文法
문법
gramatikagramatinisgramatiškaigramatiškai taisyklingasvidurinė mokykla
gramatikagramatikas-gramatikas grāmatagramatikas pielietošanapilns ar gramatiskām kļūdām
gramatică
gramatické chybygramatika
slovnica
grammatik
ไวยากรณ์
gramerdil bilgisidilbilgisidilbilgisi kullanımı
ngữ pháp

grammar

[ˈgræməʳ]
A. N
1.gramática f
that's bad grammareso es gramaticalmente incorrecto
2. (also grammar book) → libro m de gramática
B. CPD grammar school N (Brit) → instituto m de segunda enseñanza (al que se accede a través de pruebas selectivas)
GRAMMAR SCHOOL
En el Reino Unido, una grammar school es un centro estatal de educación secundaria selectiva que proporciona formación especialmente dirigida a los alumnos que vayan a continuar hasta una formación universitaria. Normalmente no son centros mixtos y para entrar en ellos se exige un examen escrito. Debido a la introducción en los años sesenta y setenta de las comprehensive schools para las que no hace falta una prueba de acceso, hoy día quedan pocas grammar schools, aunque sí que continúa el debate sobre si la calidad de la educación en estos centros es mejor o si sólo sirven para favorecer el elitismo en la enseñanza.

grammar

[ˈgræmər] ngrammaire f

grammar

n
(= subject, book)Grammatik f, → Sprachlehre f; your grammar is terriblevon Grammatik hast du keine Ahnung; his grammar is excellentseine Grammatik ist fehlerfrei; that is bad grammardas ist grammat(ikal)isch falsch

grammar

[ˈgræməʳ] ngrammatica
that's bad grammar → è sgrammaticato

grammar

(ˈgrӕmə) noun
1. the rules for forming words and for combining words to form sentences. He's an expert on French grammar.
2. a description or collection of the rules of grammar. Could you lend me your Latin grammar?; (also adjective) a grammar book.
3. a person's use of grammatical rules. This essay is full of bad grammar.
gramˈmatical (-ˈmӕ-) adjective
1. (negative ungrammatical) correct according to the rules of grammar. a grammatical sentence.
2. of (a) grammar. a grammatical rule.
gramˈmatically adverb
grammar school
1. a type of secondary school.
2. (American) a primary school.

grammar ends in -ar (not -er).

grammar

نَحْو gramatika grammatik Grammatik γραμματική gramática kielioppi grammaire gramatika grammatica 文法 문법 grammatica grammatikk gramatyka gramática грамматика grammatik ไวยากรณ์ gramer ngữ pháp 文法

grammar

n. gramática.
References in classic literature ?
I tried both ways, and when it came to a sniff or utter mortification and woe, he just threw the grammar on to the floor and marched out of the room.
His conversation was in free and easy defiance of Murray's Grammar,[1] and was garnished at convenient intervals with various profane expressions, which not even the desire to be graphic in our account shall induce us to transcribe.
The Spaniards have a good term to express this wild and dusky knowledge--Gramatica parda--tawny grammar, a kind of mother-wit derived from that same leopard to which I have referred.
Why, he had all the earmarks of a typewriter copyist, if you leave out the disposition to contribute uninvited emen- dations of your grammar and punctuation.
With an accent like gritting your teeth, it is true, and with a grammar that is no improvement on blasphemy - still, with practice you get at the meat of what he says, and it serves.
And another thing: I've noticed a good deal, and there's no bird, or cow, or anything that uses as good grammar as a bluejay.
Rebecca clasped her Quackenbos's Grammar and Greenleaf's Arithmetic with a joyful sense of knowing her lessons.
The superintendent of Lowood (for such was this lady) having taken her seat before a pair of globes placed on one of the tables, summoned the first class round her, and commenced giving a lesson on geography; the lower classes were called by the teachers: repetitions in history, grammar, &c.
Peggotty meant her nephew Ham, mentioned in my first chapter; but she spoke of him as a morsel of English Grammar.
I believe he had been knighted himself for storming the English grammar at the point of the pen, in a desperate address engrossed on vellum, on the occasion of the laying of the first stone of some building or other, and for handing some Royal Personage either the trowel or the mortar.
Erskine blushed, flattered by being quoted; an attention that had been shown him only once before, and then by a reviewer with the object of proving that the Patriot Martyrs were slovenly in their grammar.
Alice thought this must be the right way of speaking to a mouse: she had never done such a thing before, but she remembered having seen in her brother's Latin Grammar, `A mouse--of a mouse--to a mouse--a mouse--O mouse