Expert can easily set preposition (if any), grammatical case
of the argument and select argument type (from predefined list); but it becomes harder to define all the prepositions and cases as the number of event types and verbs grows up.
In a recent publication I have argued that these forms correspond to dative-shift, in which the logical patient is demoted to the essive and the recipient or beneficiary of the action is raised to the absolutive (see Campbell, "Agent, Subject, Patient, and Beneficiary: Grammatical Roles in Hurrian," in Grammatical Case
in the Languages of the Middle East and Europe, ed.
In (3b) the two constituents are again nouns but -e- does not represent the grammatical case
Int'l Colloquium on Grammatical Case
in the Languages.
It seems that this marker is just on its way to grammaticalize into a real grammatical case
marker for all kinds of oblique verbal arguments such as addressees, recipients and experiencer, but also nonprototypical agents.
Macroroles are only assigned to core arguments, that is, arguments with no morphological marking as in Present-day English or marked by a grammatical case
as in Old English, (4) in opposition to oblique arguments, which are introduced by argument-marking or argument-adjunct prepositions.
On the other hand, pronouns, although relatively few in number compared with nouns, tend not to follow simple, straightforward inflectional patterns analogous to one or other nominal inflection pattern, precisely because of their function--their role, in any grammatical case
, of substituting for any noun (II 24, p.
1) This captured the imagination of a generation that until then had rarely heard "meaning" mentioned in connection with linguistics, one also that had never encountered a language in which grammatical case
played much of a part.
This kind of identity between singular and plural does not occur in other lexical types, nor in the grammatical cases
of the given word: pert 'house.
Old English had grammatical cases
, like Latin or Russian, but these were abandoned.
It is written in both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets and has seven grammatical cases