If, for example, a language has a consistent S/A pivot throughout several key constructions and, in addition, displays the same morphosyntactical devices to encode S and A, then the language has the obvious grammatical relation
of subject, which is [S, A].
In the chapter on relative clauses, there is unfortunately confusion between whether "X relative clause," where "X" is some grammatical relation
, refers to the grammatical relation
in the subordinate or the main clause; in the discussion of subject and object relative clauses, the former is illustrated, while the clear examples of "oblique relative clauses" illustrate the latter (examples - on p.
He relates the argument structure to the grammatical relations
subject and object and discusses some interesting restrictions of the mapping from argument roles to grammatical relation
with several compelling examples.
In this case the secondary topic function is grammaticalized as the grammatical relation
of the direct object in the same way as the subject is typically a result of the grammaticalization of the primary topic.
The name of the grammatical relation
of our MWE example is "gbz sbz4 u sbz6", which is a notation adopted from the Slovene Sketch grammar [Kosem et al.
If and when the genitive marker is used the grammatical relation
is expressed as xu~/a kanur `the light of God' which is a phrase and not a compound.
There is no evidence for the grammatical relation
of "indirect object" in the language; that is, there is no intermediate category, ranging after subjects and direct objects, but preceding oblique objects on the Accessibility Hierarchy (Keenan and Comrie 1977) with respect to relativization, the use of reflexives, and quantifiers.
Extracting grammatical relations
from the feature structure produced by the parser is simple: there is a grammatical relation
between the head word of each sub-structure and the head word of the outer structure containing the sub-structure in question.
The confusion is brought about by the fact that Zwingli basically uses these verbs indifferently to refer both to the grammatical relation
holding between subject and predicate, and to the real relation holding (in type (3) propositions) between subject and property.
All these hierarchies suggest that the assignment of grammatical relations
'subject' and 'object' becomes more difficult as we move from left to right, until a cut-off point is reached after which the assignment of a particular grammatical relation
to a semantic function becomes impossible.
9) Alignment of person and grammatical relation
(from Aissen 1999a: 682)
in terms of a relational hierarchy of the Keenan & Comrie or Perlmutter & Postal sort, whereby arguments are ranked with respect to various phenomena in terms of the grammatical relation
they bear, with direct object (or relation 2) being intermediate to subject (R1) and indirect object (R3).