hard


Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to hard: die hard, Hard boiled eggs

hard

 (härd)
adj. hard·er, hard·est
1.
a. Resistant to pressure; not readily penetrated; firm or solid: a hard material.
b. Well protected from an attack, as by aerial bombardment: bunkers and other hard targets.
2.
a. Requiring great effort or endurance: a hard assignment.
b. Performed with or marked by great diligence or energy: a project that required years of hard work.
c. Difficult to resolve, accomplish, or finish: That was a hard question.
d. Difficult to understand or impart: Physics was the hardest of my courses. Thermodynamics is a hard course to teach.
3. Proceeding or performing with force, vigor, or persistence; assiduous: a hard worker.
4.
a. Intense in force or degree: a hard blow.
b. Inclement or severe: a long, hard winter.
5.
a. Stern, strict, or demanding: a hard taskmaster.
b. Lacking compassion or sympathy; callous: became hard after years in prison.
6.
a. Difficult to endure; causing hardship or suffering: a hard life.
b. Oppressive or unjust in nature or effect: restrictions that were hard on welfare applicants.
c. Harsh or severe in effect or intention: I said some hard things that I regret.
d. Marked by stubborn refusal to compromise or yield; uncompromising: drives a hard bargain.
e. Bitter or resentful: hard feelings caused by the insult.
f. Showing disapproval, bitterness, or resentment: gave me a hard look.
7.
a. Causing damage or premature wear: Snow and ice are hard on a car's finish.
b. Bad; adverse: hard luck.
8.
a. Real and unassailable: hard evidence.
b. Definite; firm: a hard commitment.
c. Free from illusion or sentimentality; practical or realistic: We need to take a hard look at the situation.
d. Using or based on data that are readily quantified or verified: the hard sciences.
9.
a. Marked by sharp delineation or contrast: a hard line separating the two lists.
b. Lacking in shade; undiminished: the hard light of the midday sun.
10. Hardcore.
11. Being a turn in a specific direction at an angle more acute than other possible routes.
12.
a. Metallic, as opposed to paper. Used of currency.
b. Backed by bullion rather than by credit. Used of currency.
c. High and stable. Used of prices.
13.
a. Durable; lasting: hard merchandise.
b. Written or printed rather than stored in electronic media: sent the information by hard mail.
14. Erect; tumid. Used of a penis.
15.
a. Having high alcoholic content; intoxicating: hard liquor.
b. Rendered alcoholic by fermentation; fermented: hard cider.
16. Containing dissolved salts that interfere with the lathering action of soap. Used of water.
17. Linguistics Velar, as in c in cake or g in log, as opposed to palatal or soft.
18. Physics Of relatively high energy; penetrating: hard x-rays.
19. High in gluten content: hard wheat.
20. Chemistry Resistant to biodegradation: a hard detergent.
21. Extremely or dangerously addictive. Used of certain illegal drugs, such as heroin.
adv.
1. With strenuous effort; intently: worked hard all day; stared hard at the accused criminal.
2. With great force, vigor, or energy: pressed hard on the lever.
3. In such a way as to cause great damage or hardship: industrial cities hit hard by unemployment.
4. With great distress, grief, or bitterness: took the divorce hard.
5. Firmly; securely: held hard to the railing.
6. Toward or into a solid condition: concrete that sets hard within a day.
7. Near in space or time; close: The factory stands hard by the railroad tracks.
8. Nautical Completely; fully: hard alee.
Idioms:
hard and fast
Defined, fixed, and invariable: hard and fast rules.
hard of hearing
1. Having a partial loss of hearing.
2. People who have partial loss of hearing, considered as a group.
hard put
Undergoing great difficulty: Under the circumstances, he was hard put to explain himself.
hard up Informal
In need; poor.

[Middle English, from Old English heard; see kar- in Indo-European roots.]

hard

(hɑːd)
adj
1. firm or rigid; not easily dented, crushed, or pierced
2. toughened by or as if by physical labour; not soft or smooth: hard hands.
3. difficult to do or accomplish; arduous: a hard task.
4. difficult to understand or perceive: a hard question.
5. showing or requiring considerable physical or mental energy, effort, or application: hard work; a hard drinker.
6. stern, cold, or intractable: a hard judge.
7. exacting; demanding: a hard master.
8. harsh; cruel: a hard fate.
9. inflicting pain, sorrow, distress, or hardship: hard times.
10. tough or adamant: a hard man.
11. forceful or violent: a hard knock.
12. cool or uncompromising: we took a long hard look at our profit factor.
13. indisputable; real: hard facts.
14. (Chemistry) chem (of water) impairing the formation of a lather by soap. See hardness3
15. practical, shrewd, or calculating: he is a hard man in business.
16. too harsh to be pleasant: hard light.
17. (Banking & Finance)
a. (of cash, money, etc) in coin and paper rather than cheques
b. (of currency) in strong demand, esp as a result of a good balance of payments situation
c. (of credit) difficult to obtain; tight
18. (Brewing) (of alcoholic drink) being a spirit rather than a wine, beer, etc: the hard stuff.
19. (Pharmacology) (of a drug such as heroin, morphine, or cocaine) highly addictive. Compare soft20
20. (General Physics) physics (of radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays) having high energy and the ability to penetrate solids
21. (General Physics) physics (of a vacuum) almost complete
22. (Commerce) chiefly US (of goods) durable
23. short for hard-core. See hard core3, hard core4
24. (Journalism & Publishing) (of news coverage) concentrating on serious stories
25. (Broadcasting) (of news coverage) concentrating on serious stories
26. (Phonetics & Phonology) phonetics
a. an older word for fortis
b. (not in modern technical usage) denoting the consonants c and g in English when they are pronounced as velar stops (k, g)
c. (of consonants in the Slavonic languages) not palatalized
27. (Fortifications)
a. being heavily fortified and protected
b. (of nuclear missiles) located underground in massively reinforced silos
28. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) politically extreme: the hard left.
29. informal Brit and NZ incorrigible or disreputable (esp in the phrase a hard case)
30. (Cookery) (of bread, etc) stale and old
31. a hard nut to crack
a. a person not easily persuaded or won over
b. a thing not easily understood
32. hard by near; close by
33. hard doer NZ a tough worker at anything
34. hard done by unfairly or badly treated
35. hard up informal
a. in need of money; poor
b. (foll by for) in great need (of): hard up for suggestions.
36. put the hard word on informal Austral and NZ to ask or demand something from
adv
37. with great energy, force, or vigour: the team always played hard.
38. as far as possible; all the way: hard left.
39. with application; earnestly or intently: she thought hard about the formula.
40. with great intensity, force, or violence: his son's death hit him hard.
41. (foll by: on, upon, by, or after) close; near: hard on his heels.
42. (foll by at) assiduously; devotedly
43.
a. with effort or difficulty: their victory was hard won.
b. (in combination): hard-earned.
44. slowly and reluctantly: prejudice dies hard.
45. go hard with to cause pain or difficulty to (someone): it will go hard with you if you don't tell the truth.
46. hard at it working hard
47. hard put hard put to it scarcely having the capacity (to do something): he's hard put to get to work by 9:30.
n
48. any colorant that produces a harsh coarse appearance
49. (Civil Engineering) Brit a roadway across a foreshore
50. slang hard labour
51. slang an erection of the penis (esp in the phrase get or have a hard on)
[Old English heard; related to Old Norse harthr, Old Frisian herd, Old High German herti, Gothic hardus hard, Greek kratus strong]

hard

(hɑrd)

adj. and
adv. -er, -est. adj.
1. not soft; solid and firm to the touch.
2. firmly formed; tight: a hard knot.
3. difficult to do or accomplish; fatiguing; troublesome: a hard task.
4. difficult or troublesome with respect to an action, situation, person, etc.: hard to please.
5. difficult to deal with, manage, control, overcome, or understand: a hard problem.
6. involving a great deal of effort, energy, or persistence: hard labor.
7. performing or carrying on work with great effort, energy, or persistence: a hard worker.
8. vigorous or violent in force; severe: a hard fall.
9. bad; unendurable; unbearable: hard luck.
10. oppressive; harsh; rough: hard treatment.
11. austere; severe: a hard winter.
12. harsh or severe in dealing with others: a hard master.
13. difficult to explain away; undeniable: hard facts.
14. factual, as distinguished from speculation or hearsay: hard information.
15. harsh or unfriendly; resentful; bitter: hard feelings.
16. of stern judgment or close examination; searching: We took a hard look at our finances.
17. lacking delicacy or softness; clear and distinct; sharp; harsh: a hard line; hard features.
18. severe or rigorous in terms: a hard bargain.
19. sternly realistic; dispassionate; unsentimental: a hard view of life.
20. incorrigible; disreputable; tough: a hard character.
21. (of the penis) erect.
22. (of water) containing mineral salts that interfere with the action of soap.
23. in coins or paper money as distinguished from checks, promissory notes, or the like: hard cash.
24. (of paper money) backed by gold reserves and readily convertible into foreign currency.
25. (of assets) having intrinsic value, as gold or diamonds.
26. (of alcoholic beverages)
a. containing more than 22.5 percent alcohol by volume, as whiskey and brandy as opposed to beer and wine.
b. strong because of fermentation; intoxicating: hard cider.
27. (of wine) tasting excessively of tannin.
28. (of an illicit narcotic or drug) known to be physically addictive, as opium, morphine, or cocaine.
29. (of a fabric) having relatively little nap; smooth.
30. (of the landing of a space vehicle) executed without decelerating.
31. (of a missile) capable of being launched from an underground silo.
32. (of a military installation) heavily reinforced.
33. (of wheat) having a high gluten content.
34.
a. (of c and g) pronounced as (k) in come and (g) in go.
b. (of consonants) fortis.
c. (of consonants in Slavic languages) not palatalized.
Compare soft (def. 19).
adv.
35. with great exertion; with vigor or violence; strenuously: to work hard.
36. earnestly, intently, or critically: to look hard at a decision.
37. harshly or severely.
38. so as to be solid, tight, or firm: frozen hard.
39. with strong force or impact: to be hit hard.
40. in a deeply affected manner; with genuine sorrow or remorse: He took the news very hard.
41. closely; immediately: Defeat seemed hard at hand.
42. to an unreasonable or extreme degree; excessively; immoderately.
43. Naut. closely, fully, or to the extreme limit: hard aport.
Idioms:
1. be hard on, to deal harshly or strictly with.
2. hard by, in close proximity to; near.
3. hard put, in great perplexity or difficulty; at a loss: We are hard put to pay the rent now.
4. hard up, Informal.
a. urgently in need of money.
b. feeling a lack or need.
[before 900; Middle English; Old English heard, c. Old Saxon hard, Old High German hart, Old Norse harthr, Gothic hardus; akin to Greek kratýs strong, Ionic dial. kártos strength (compare -cracy)]

hard

hardly
1. 'hard'

Hard can be an adjective. If something is hard, it is not easy to do.

Coping with three babies is very hard work.

Hard can also be an adverb. For example, if you work hard, you work with a lot of effort.

Many elderly people have worked hard all their lives.
2. 'hardly'

Hardly is an adverb. It has a totally different meaning from hard. You use hardly to modify a statement when you want to emphasize that only a small amount or detail makes it true, and it is best to consider the opposite as true. For example, if someone hardly speaks, they do not speak much. If something is hardly surprising, it is not very surprising.

I hardly knew him.
Nick hardly slept because he was so worried.

If you use an auxiliary verb or modal with hardly, you put the auxiliary verb or modal first. You say, for example, 'I can hardly see'. Don't say 'I hardly can see'.

Two years before, the wall had hardly existed.
She can hardly wait to begin.
We could hardly move.

Be Careful!
Don't use 'not' with hardly. Don't say, for example, 'I did not hardly know him'. Say 'I hardly knew him'.

Hardly is sometimes used in longer structures to say that one thing happened immediately after another.

The local police had hardly finished their search when the detectives arrived.

Be Careful!
In structures like these you use when, not 'than'. Don't say, for example, 'The local police had hardly finished their search than the detectives arrived'.

In stories, hardly is sometimes put at the beginning of a sentence, followed by had or the verb be and the subject.

Hardly had he uttered the words when he began laughing.
3. 'hardly ever'

If something hardly ever happens, it almost never happens.

I hardly ever spoke to them.
Tim hardly ever met her friends.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adj.1.hard - not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure; "a difficult task"; "nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"; "difficult times"; "why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"
demanding - requiring more than usually expected or thought due; especially great patience and effort and skill; "found the job very demanding"; "a baby can be so demanding"
effortful - requiring great physical effort
hard - dispassionate; "took a hard look"; "a hard bargainer";
2.hard - dispassionate; "took a hard look"; "a hard bargainer";
difficult, hard - not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure; "a difficult task"; "nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"; "difficult times"; "why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"
merciless, unmerciful - having or showing no mercy; "the merciless enemy"; "a merciless critic"; "gave him a merciless beating"
insensitive - deficient in human sensibility; not mentally or morally sensitive; "insensitive to the needs of the patients"
tough - not given to gentleness or sentimentality; "a tough character"
soft - compassionate and kind; conciliatory; "he was soft on his children"
3.hard - resisting weight or pressure
soft - yielding readily to pressure or weight
4.hard - very strong or vigorous; "strong winds"; "a hard left to the chin"; "a knockout punch"; "a severe blow"
strong - having strength or power greater than average or expected; "a strong radio signal"; "strong medicine"; "a strong man"
5.hard - characterized by effort to the point of exhaustionhard - characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion; especially physical effort; "worked their arduous way up the mining valley"; "a grueling campaign"; "hard labor"; "heavy work"; "heavy going"; "spent many laborious hours on the project"; "set a punishing pace"
effortful - requiring great physical effort
6.hard - produced without vibration of the vocal cords; "unvoiced consonants such as `p' and `k' and `s'"
7.hard - (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source
diffuse, diffused, soft - (of light) transmitted from a broad light source or reflected
8.hard - (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward or touching the velum; "Russian distinguished between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants"
soft - (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue raised toward the hard palate; characterized by a hissing or hushing sound (as `s' and `sh')
9.hard - given to excessive indulgence of bodily appetites especially for intoxicating liquors; "a hard drinker"
indulgent - characterized by or given to yielding to the wishes of someone ; "indulgent grandparents"
10.hard - being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content; "hard liquor"
alcoholic - characteristic of or containing alcohol; "alcoholic drinks"
11.hard - unfortunate or hard to bearhard - unfortunate or hard to bear; "had hard luck"; "a tough break"
bad - having undesirable or negative qualities; "a bad report card"; "his sloppy appearance made a bad impression"; "a bad little boy"; "clothes in bad shape"; "a bad cut"; "bad luck"; "the news was very bad"; "the reviews were bad"; "the pay is bad"; "it was a bad light for reading"; "the movie was a bad choice"
12.hard - dried out; "hard dry rolls left over from the day before"
stale - lacking freshness, palatability, or showing deterioration from age; "stale bread"; "the beer was stale"
Adv.1.hard - with effort or force or vigor; "the team played hard"; "worked hard all day"; "pressed hard on the lever"; "hit the ball hard"; "slammed the door hard"
2.hard - with firmness; "held hard to the railing"
3.hard - earnestly or intently; "thought hard about it"; "stared hard at the accused"
4.hard - causing great damage or hardship; "industries hit hard by the depression"; "she was severely affected by the bank's failure"
5.hard - slowly and with difficulty; "prejudices die hard"
6.hard - indulging excessively; "he drank heavily"
7.hard - into a solid condition; "concrete that sets hard within a few hours"
8.hard - very near or close in space or time; "it stands hard by the railroad tracks"; "they were hard on his heels"; "a strike followed hard upon the plant's opening"
9.hard - with pain or distress or bitterness; "he took the rejection very hard"
10.hard - to the full extent possible; all the way; "hard alee"; "the ship went hard astern"; "swung the wheel hard left"

hard

adjective
4. forceful, strong, powerful, driving, heavy, sharp, violent, smart, tremendous, fierce, vigorous, hefty He gave her a hard push which toppled her backwards.
8. bitter, angry, hostile, resentful, acrimonious, embittered, antagonistic, rancorous I struck him, and dismissed him with hard words.
adverb
2. intently, closely, carefully, sharply, keenly You had to listen hard to hear him.
4. with difficulty, painfully, laboriously the hard won rights of the working woman
hard and fast fixed, strict, rigid, binding, definite, clear-cut, stringent, cast-iron, inflexible, immutable, incontrovertible, invariable, unalterable There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to garden design.
hard by right beside, near, close to, alongside, next to, adjacent to, cheek by jowl with The hamper stood hard by the foot of the white iron bed.

hard

adjective
1. Unyielding to pressure or force:
2. Physically toughened so as to have great endurance:
3. Not easy to do, achieve, or master:
4. Requiring great or extreme bodily, mental, or spiritual strength:
5. Conveying great physical force:
6. Indulging in drink to an excessive degree:
Informal: two-fisted.
7. Rigorous and unsparing in treating others:
8. Cold and forbidding:
9. Causing sharp, often prolonged discomfort:
13. Based on fact:
14. Having or indicating an awareness of things as they really are:
15. Containing alcohol:
adverb
1. In a violent, strenuous way:
3. With intense energy and force:
Idioms: hammer and tongs, tooth and nail, with might and main.
4. To a point near in time, space, or relation:
Translations
صَعْبصَعب، ُمسبب للمِعاناةصُلْبقاسٍقاسٍ ، لا يُظْهِرُ مشاعر ودِّيَّهً
dur
tvrdýtěžkýtuhýtvrděúplně
hårdhårdtsværvanskeligskarpt
fortamalfacilamalmolanerefuteblasevera
vaikeakovakovastirankkavahva
tvrdmarljivotežak
keménynehéz
af fremsta megni, mikiîákaflega; fast, hartalgerlegaerfiîurharîur
困難な堅い懸命に
단단한어려운열심히
blaivaus protobūti griežtam subūti neteisingam kieno nors atžvilgiugerai dėvimaskietai virtas
bargsciešicietscītīgigrūti
tare
silno
močnoostertežektrdtrdo
hårdhårtsvår
แข็งทำงานหนักยาก
güçsertzorşiddetlesıkıntılı
cứngkhó khănkhó tínhkhốn khómạnh

hard

[hɑːd]
A. ADJ (harder (compar) (hardest (superl)))
1. (= not soft) [object, substance, cheese, skin] → duro; [ground, snow] → duro, compacto
baked hardendurecido (al sol o en el horno)
to become or go hardponerse duro, endurecerse
the water is very hard hereaquí el agua es muy dura or tiene mucha cal
to be as hard as nails [person] (physically) → ser duro como una roca
(as) hard as a rock [object] → (tan) duro como una piedra
see also nut
2. (= harsh, severe) [climate, winter, person] → duro, severo; [frost] → fuerte; [words, tone] → duro, áspero; [expression, eyes, voice] → serio, duro; [drink, liquor] → fuerte; [drugs] → duro; [fact] → concreto; [evidence] → irrefutable
a hard blow (fig) → un duro golpe
to take a long hard look at sthexaminar algo detenidamente
to be hard on sbser muy duro con algn, darle duro a algn (LAm)
don't be so hard on him, it's not his faultno seas tan duro con él, no es culpa suya
aren't you being a bit hard on yourself?¿no estás siendo un poco duro contigo mismo?
to be hard on one's clothesdestrozar la ropa
the light was hard on the eyesla luz hacía daño a los ojos
to be as hard as nails (in temperament) → ser muy duro, tener el corazón muy duro
see also feeling
3. (= strenuous, tough) [work, day] → duro; [fight, match] → muy reñido
gardening is hard workarreglar el jardín es un trabajo duro
phew, that was hard work!¡uf!, ¡ha costado lo suyo!
he's not afraid of hard workel trabajo duro no le asusta
coping with three babies is very hard worktres bebés dan mucha tarea or mucho trabajo, arreglárselas con tres bebés es una dura or ardua tarea
it's hard work getting her to talk about herselfcuesta mucho or resulta muy trabajoso hacerla hablar sobre sí misma
to be a hard workerser muy trabajador(a)
4. (= difficult) [exam, decision, choice] → difícil
to be hard to do: it's hard to study on your ownes difícil estudiar por tu cuenta
he found it hard to make friendsle resultaba difícil hacer amigos
I find it hard to believe thatme cuesta (trabajo) creer que ...
bloodstains are hard to removelas manchas de sangre son difíciles de quitar
to be hard to come byser difícil de conseguir
that is a very hard question to answerésa es una pregunta muy difícil de responder
to be hard to deal withser de trato difícil
to be hard to pleaseser muy exigente or quisquilloso
to be hard of hearingser duro de oído
he's learning the hard wayestá aprendiendo a base de cometer errores
we shall have to do it the hard waytendremos que hacerlo a pulso
see also bargain, play C4
5. (= tough, unpleasant) [life, times] → duro
it's a hard life!¡qué vida más dura!
those were hard times to live inaquellos eran tiempos duros, la vida era dura en aquellos tiempos
her family had fallen on hard timessu familia estaba pasando por dificultades económicas
to have a hard timepasarlo mal
to have a hard time doing sthtener problemas para hacer algo
to give sb a hard timehacérselo pasar mal a algn
to take a hard line against/over sthadoptar una postura intransigente contra algo/respecto a algo
hard lines (Brit) → mala suerte f
hard lines!¡qué mala suerte!, ¡qué mala pata!
see also going, hard-line, hard-liner, luck
6. (= forceful) [push, tug, kick] → fuerte
7. (Phon, Ling) [sound] → fuerte; [consonant] → oclusivo
B. ADV (harder (compar) (hardest (superl)))
1. (= with a lot of effort) [work] → duro, mucho; [study] → mucho
he had worked hard all his lifehabía trabajado duro or mucho toda su vida
he works very hardtrabaja muy durotrabaja mucho
she works hard at keeping herself fitse esfuerza mucho por mantenerse en forma
he was hard at work in the gardenestaba trabajando afanosamente or con ahínco en el jardín
he was breathing hardrespiraba con dificultad
we're saving hard for our holidaysestamos ahorrando todo lo que podemos para las vacaciones, estamos ahorrando al máximo para las vacaciones
to try hard she always tries hardsiempre se esfuerza mucho
I can't do it, no matter how hard I tryno puedo hacerlo, por mucho que lo intente
to try one's hardest to do sthesforzarse al máximo por hacer algo
maybe you're trying too harda lo mejor tienes que tomártelo con más calma
to be hard at it Bill was hard at it in the gardenBill se estaba empleando a fondo en el jardín, Bill estaba dándole duro al jardín
2. (= with force) [hit] → fuerte, duro; [pull, push, blow] → con fuerza; [snow, rain] → fuerte, mucho
she pushed the wardrobe as hard as she couldempujó el armario con todas sus fuerzas
the government decided to clamp down hard on terrorismel gobierno decidió tomar medidas duras contra el terrorismo
she was feeling hard done bypensaba que la habían tratado injustamente
hard hitseriamente afectado
to hit sb hard (fig) → ser un duro golpe para algn
California has been (particularly) hard hit by the crisisCalifornia (en particular) se ha visto seriamente afectada por la crisis
I would be hard pushed or put to think of another planme resultaría difícil pensar en otro plan
we'll be hard pushed or put to finish this tonight!¡nos va a ser difícil terminar esto esta noche!
to take sth hardtomarse algo muy mal
he took it pretty hardse lo tomó muy malfue un duro golpe para élle golpeó mucho (LAm)
to be hard upestar pelado, no tener un duro (Sp)
to be hard up for sthestar falto or escaso de algo
see also hard-pressed
3. (= solid)
to freeze hardquedarse congelado
to set hard [cement etc] → fraguar, endurecerse
4. (= intently) [listen] → atentamente; [concentrate] → al máximo
to look hard (at sth)fijarse mucho (en algo)
think hard before you make a decisionpiénsalo muy bien antes de tomar una decisión
I thought hard but I couldn't remember his namepor más que pensé or por más vueltas que le di no pude recordar su nombre
5. (= sharply)
hard a-port/a-starboard (Naut) → todo a babor/estribor
to turn hard left/rightgirar todo a la izquierda/derecha
6. (= closely)
hard behind sthjusto detrás de algo
I hurried upstairs with my sister hard behind mesubí las escaleras corriendo con mi hermana que venía justo detrás
hard upon sth (= just after) → justo después de algo
the launch of the book followed hard upon the success of the filmel lanzamiento del libro se produjo justo después del éxito de la película
see also heel A1
C. CPD hard cash Ndinero m contante y sonante, (dinero m en) efectivo m
hard centre, hard center (US) Nrelleno m duro
hard copy N (Comput) → copia f impresa
the hard core N (= intransigents) → los incondicionales, el núcleo duro
see also hard-core hard court N (Tennis) → cancha f (de tenis) de cemento, pista f (de tenis) de cemento
hard currency Nmoneda f fuerte, divisa f fuerte
hard disk N (Comput) → disco m duro
hard goods NPLproductos mpl no perecederos
hard hat N (= riding hat) → gorra f de montar; [of construction worker] → casco m; (= construction worker) → albañil mf
hard labour, hard labor (US) Ntrabajos mpl forzados
hard landing Naterrizaje m duro
the hard left N (esp Brit) → la extrema izquierda, la izquierda radical
hard news Nnoticias fpl fidedignas
hard palate Npaladar m
hard porn Nporno m duro
the hard right N (esp Brit) → la extrema derecha, la derecha radical
hard rock N (Mus) → rock m duro
hard sell Nventa f agresiva
hard sell tacticstáctica fsing de venta agresiva
hard sell techniquestécnicas fpl de venta agresiva
hard shoulder N (Brit) (Aut) → arcén m, hombrillo m
hard stuff N (= alcohol) → alcohol m duro, bebidas fpl fuertes; (= drugs) → droga f dura
he fancied a drop of the hard stuffle apetecía una copita de algo fuerte
hard top N (= car) → coche m no descapotable; (= car roof) → techo m rígido
hard water Nagua f dura, agua f con mucha cal

hard

[ˈhɑːrd]
adj
(not soft) [surface, object] → dur(e)
This cheese is very hard → Ce fromage est très dur.
(= difficult, tough) [question, problem] → difficile; [work] → difficile; [life, time] → difficile; [day] → dur(e)
This question's too hard for me → Cette question est trop difficile pour moi.
a hard day's work → une dure journée de travail
it's hard work doing sth → c'est dur de faire qch
it was hard going → ça a été dur
it is hard to do sth
It is hard to understand what is happening → C'est difficile de comprendre ce qui se passe.
It's hard to tell → C'est difficile à dire.
It's hard to tell what the effect will be → C'est difficile de prévoir quels seront les effets.
It's hard to say → C'est difficile à dire.
It's hard to say what he'll do next → C'est difficile de prévoir ce qu'il fera par la suite.
It's hard to know what to do → C'est difficile de savoir que faire.
to find it hard to do sth → avoir du mal à faire qch
I find it hard to believe that ... → je n'arrive pas à croire que ...
to be hard to please → être difficile
to be hard on sb [situation] → être dur pour qn
to be hard on the eyes → faire mal aux yeux
to be hard on the ears → faire mal aux oreilles
no hard feelings! → sans rancune!
hard cheese! → pas de bol! , pas de chance!
see also hard luck
(= stern) [person] → dur(e); [expression] → sévère; [voice] → dur(e)
to be hard on sb (= severe with) → être dur(e) avec qn
(= violent) [kick, punch] → violent(e)
(= concrete) [evidence] → tangible; [facts] → concret/ète
(weather conditions) [winter] → rude; [frost] → fort(e)
[drug] → dur(e)
[water] → calcaire
adv
[hit, kick, push] → fort
[work] → dur
He has worked very hard → Il a travaillé très dur.
to think hard → bien réfléchir
to try hard → faire de son mieux
to try hard to do sth → faire de son mieux pour faire qch
to try a bit harder → essayer un peu plus
to laugh hard → rire fort
to look hard at sth (= consider carefully) [+ problem, issue] → examiner qch
to look hard at sb/sth (= stare) → regarder fixement qn/qch
to fight hard to do sth → faire d'énormes efforts pour faire qch
to fight hard for sth → se battre durement pour qch
to be hard put to do sth, to be hard pushed to do sth → avoir beaucoup de mal à faire qch
to be hard hit by sth → être durement frappé(e) par qch
to take sth hard → être très affecté(e) par qch
to play hard to get → se faire désirer
to be hard done by → être traité(e) injustement
to feel hard done by (British)se sentir brimé(e)
(= heavily) [snow] → abondamment
to set hard → durcir
to freeze hard → geler
to be frozen hard → être complètement gelé(e)hard and fast hard-and-fast adj (= definite) [evidence] → concluant(e); [decision, conclusion] → définitif/ive
There are no hard and fast rules → Il n'y pas de règle absolue.

hard

adj (+er)
(= not soft)hart; as hard as rocks or ironsteinhart; the ground was baked hardder Boden war völlig ausgedörrt
(= difficult)schwer, schwierig; this is hard to do, it is hard to does ist schwer, das zu tun; stories that are hard to understandGeschichten, die schwer verständlich sind; that is a very hard question to answerdiese Frage lässt sich nur schwer beantworten; their prices are hard to beatihre Preise sind kaum zu unterbieten; she is hard to pleaseman kann ihr kaum etwas recht machen; it’s hard to telles lässt sich schwer sagen, es ist schwer zu sagen; it was hard to believees war kaum zu glauben; I find it hard to believeich kann es kaum glauben; she found it hard to make friendses fiel ihr schwer, Freunde zu finden; to do something the hard wayetw auf die schwere Art machen; I don’t see the point in doing it the hard waywarum soll man es sich schwer machen?; to play hard to getso tun, als sei man nicht interessiert
(= strenuous, demanding) work, day, weekhart, anstrengend; he leaves all the hard work to medie ganze Schwerarbeit überlässt er mir; it was very hard work in the shopdie Arbeit in dem Geschäft war sehr anstrengend; he’s hard work (inf)er ist ziemlich anstrengend (inf); (= difficult to know or persuade)er ist ein harter Brocken (inf); getting on with him is hard work (inf)es gehört schon etwas dazu, mit ihm auszukommen (inf); it was hard work for me not to swear at himes hat mich große Mühe gekostet, ihn nicht zu beschimpfen; a hard workerein fleißiger Arbeiter; to be a hard workersehr fleißig sein; it was hard goingman kam nur mühsam voran; learning Japanese is hard goingJapanisch zu lernen ist sehr schwierig; this novel is hard goingdurch diesen Roman muss man sich mühsam durchbeißen; chatting her up is hard going (inf)es ist gar nicht so einfach, sie anzumachen (inf)
(= forceful) pull, tug, kickkräftig; blow, punchheftig; to give somebody/something a hard pushjdm/etw einen harten Stoß versetzen; to give something a hard pull or tugkräftig an etw (dat)ziehen; it was a hard blow or knock (for or to them) (fig)es war ein schwerer Schlag (für sie); to take a hard knock (fig)schwer angeschlagen werden; he took a hard knock (fig)er musste einen schweren Schlag einstecken
(= severe, tough) person, look, eyes, smile, voice, lifehart; winter, froststreng, hart; to be hard on somebody (= cause strain or wear)jdn strapazieren; (person)hart zu or streng mit jdm sein; to be hard on something (= cause strain or wear)etw strapazieren; (person)etw kritisieren; the job’s a bit hard on the nervesdie Arbeit ist ziemlich nervenaufreibend; don’t be so hard on the childrensei nicht so streng mit den Kindern; to have a hard timees schwer or nicht leicht haben; I had a hard time finding a jobich hatte Schwierigkeiten, eine Stelle zu finden; he had a hard time of iter hat es nicht leicht gehabt; (in negotiations, boxing match etc) → es hat ihn einen harten Kampf gekostet; (with illness, operation etc) → es war eine schwere Zeit für ihn; to give somebody a hard timejdm das Leben schwer machen; hard timesschwere Zeiten pl; to fall on hard timesin finanzielle Schwierigkeiten geraten; there are no hard feelings between themsie sind einander nicht böse; no hard feelings?nimm es mir nicht übel; to be as hard as nailsknallhart sein (inf) ? also nut a, bargain N a
(= harsh) lightgrell; soundhart
(= real, unquestionable) facts, informationgesichert; hard evidencesichere Beweise pl
(Typ, Comput) ? hard hyphen, hard return
adv
(= with effort) workhart, schwer; run, drivesehr schnell; breatheschwer; study, playeifrig; (= carefully) listen, lookgenau, gut; thinkscharf, angestrengt; (= strongly, forcefully) push, pullkräftig, fest; laugh, scream, cry, begsehr; rain, snowstark; blowkräftig; I’ve been hard at work or (going) hard at it (inf) since 7 this morningich bin seit heute Morgen um 7 schwer am Werk or schwer dabei (inf); she works hard at keeping herself fitsie gibt sich viel Mühe, sich fit zu halten; to try hardsich wirklich Mühe geben; no matter how hard I try …wie sehr ich mich auch anstrenge, …; if you try hard you can do itwenn du dich richtig bemühst or anstrengst, kannst du es tun; you’re not trying hard enoughdu strengst dich nicht genügend an; he tried as hard as he coulder hat sein Bestes getan or sich nach Kräften bemüht; he listened hard (straining to hear) → er horchte angestrengt; you’re not thinking hard enoughdu denkst nicht angestrengt genug nach; think harderdenk mal ein bisschen besser nach; she slammed the door hard behind ussie knallte die Tür fest hinter uns zu; it was freezing hardes herrschte strenger Frost
(= severely) to be hard pushed or put to do somethinges sehr schwer finden, etw zu tun; to clamp down hardhart durchgreifen; it’ll go hard for or with him if …er wird Schwierigkeiten bekommen, wenn …; (= it will cost him dear)es kann ihn teuer zu stehen kommen, wenn …; to be hard done byübel dran sein; (= unfairly treated)ungerecht behandelt sein; he reckons he’s hard done by having to work on Saturdayser findet es ungerecht, dass er samstags arbeiten muss; they are hard hit by the cutssie sind von den Kürzungen schwer getroffen; she took it very hardes traf sie sehr or schwer, es ging ihr sehr nahe ? also hard-pressed
(= as far as possible) hard right/leftscharf rechts/links; to turn/go hard roundeine scharfe Kehrtwendung machen; bear hard round to your lefthalten Sie sich scharf links; to lock hard overvoll einschlagen; hard a-port/a-starboard/astern etc (Naut) → hart backbord/steuerbord/nach achtern etc
(= close) to follow hard behind/upon somethingunmittelbar auf etw (acc)folgen; my sister was hard behind memeine Schwester war direkt hinter mir; following hard upon the opening of the new cinemakurz nach der Öffnung des neuen Kinos; hard by (something) (dated)ganz in der Nähe (von etw) ? also heel1 N a

hard

:
hard and fast
adjfest; rules alsobindend, verbindlich
hardback
adj (also hardbacked)
bookgebunden
chairmit einer harten Rückenlehne
hardball
n (US)
(Baseball) → Hardball m
(fig) to play hardrücksichtslos sein or vorgehen
hard-bitten
adj personabgebrüht; managerknallhart (inf)
hardboard
nHartfaser- or Pressspanplatte f
hard-boiled
adj
egghart gekocht
(fig: = shrewd) → gerissen, ausgekocht (inf), → mit allen Wassern gewaschen (inf)
(fig: = unsentimental) → kaltschnäuzig (inf)
(fig: = realistic) approach, appraisal etcnüchtern, sachlich
hardboot
n (Sport) → Hardboot m, Stiefel mit harter Plastikoberfläche
hard case
n (inf)
(= difficult person)schwieriger Mensch
(= criminal)Gewohnheitsverbrecher(in) m(f)
(= hardship)Härtefall m
hard cash
nBargeld nt, → Bare(s) nt (inf)
hard cheese
interj (Brit inf) = hard lines
hard copy
nAusdruck m, → Hardcopy f
hard core
n
(for road) → Schotter m
(fig)harter Kern; (= pornography)harter Porno (inf)
hard-core
adj
pornographyhart; hard filmharter Pornofilm, Hardcoreporno m
(= committed) memberszum harten Kern gehörend; supportdes harten Kerns; he’s a hard heroin addicter kommt vom Heroin nicht mehr los
hardcore
n (Mus) → Hardcore m
hard court
nHartplatz m
hardcover
adj n (US) = hardback ADJ a N
hard currency
hard disk
n (Comput) → Festplatte f
hard disk computer
nFestplattencomputer m
hard disk drive
hard drink
hard-drinking
adjstark trinkend
hard drug
nharte Droge
hard-earned
adj wages, cashsauer verdient; savingsmühsam erspart; rewardredlich verdient; victoryhart erkämpft
hard-edged
adj (fig)hart, kompromisslos; realityhart

hard

:
hard-featured
adj personmit harten Gesichtszügen
hard-fought
adj battle, campaignerbittert; victoryhart erkämpft; boxing match, competition, gamehart; a hard electioneine (erbitterte) Wahlschlacht
hard hat
nSchutzhelm m; (= construction worker)Bauarbeiter(in) m(f)
hard-headed
adjnüchtern
hardhearted
adjhartherzig (towards sb jdm gegenüber)
hardheartedness
hard-hitting
adj speech, reportäußerst kritisch
hard hyphen
n (Typ, Comput) → fester Bindestrich

hard

:
hard labour, (US) hard labor
nZwangsarbeit f
hard left
n (Pol) the harddie extreme Linke
hard lens
n (Opt) → harte Kontaktlinse
hard line
nharte Haltung, harte Linie; to take a hardeine harte Haltung einnehmen, eine harte Linie verfolgen
hardline
hardliner
nVertreter(in) m(f)der harten Linie, Hardliner(in) m(f) (esp Pol)
hard lines
interj (Brit inf) → Pech (gehabt)!
hard liquor
nSchnaps m
hard luck
n (inf)Pech nt(on für); hard!Pech gehabt!; it was very hard on himda hat er aber wirklich Pech gehabt; that’s just his harddas ist sein Pech
hard-luck story

hard

:
hard-nosed
adj (inf: = down-to-earth) → nüchtern; (= tough) person, governmentabgebrüht (inf); approach, attitude, leadershiprücksichtslos
hard on
n (sl)Ständer m (inf); to have a hardeinen stehen or einen Ständer haben (inf)
hard-packed
adj snowfestgetreten; sand, earthfestgedrückt
hardpad
n (Vet) → Hartballenkrankheit f
hard palate
n (Anat) → harter Gaumen, Vordergaumen m
hardpan
n (Geol) → Ortstein nt
hard-pressed
adj consumer, firm, family, troops etchart bedrängt; (with work) → stark beansprucht; to be hard to do somethinges sehr schwer finden, etw zu tun; to be hard (for money)in Geldnot sein, knapp bei Kasse sein (inf)
hard return
n (Comput) → harte Zeilenschaltung; → Absatzmarke f
hard right
n (Pol) the harddie extreme Rechte
hardrock
n (Mus) → Hardrock m
hardscrabble
adj
circumstances, situationärmlich, bescheiden
soilkarg
hard sell
naggressive Verkaufstaktik, Hardselling nt
attraggressiv

hard

:
hard shoulder
n (Brit) → Seitenstreifen m
hardstanding
n (Brit: for vehicle) → befestigter Abstellplatz
hardtack
hardtop
nHardtop nt or m

hard

:
hard-wearing
adjwiderstandsfähig; cloth, clothesstrapazierfähig
hard-wired
adj (Comput) → fest verdrahtet
hard-won
adjhart or schwer erkämpft; expertiseschwer erarbeitet
hardwood
nHartholz nt
hard-working
adj personfleißig; engineleistungsfähig

hard

[hɑːd] (-er (comp) (-est (superl)))
1. adj
a. (substance) → duro/a; (mud) → indurito/a
to grow hard → indurirsi
hard cover (of book) → copertina cartonata
a hard nut to crack (problem, person) → un osso duro
b. (severe, tough, gen) → duro/a; (climate, weather, winter) → rigido/a; (frost) → forte
to take a long hard look at sth → esaminare qc attentamente
the hard fact is that ... → la verità nuda e cruda è che...
hard lines!, hard luck! (Brit) (fam) → peccato!, scalogna!
a hard luck story → una storia pietosa
he's as hard as nails (physically) → è forte come un toro or una quercia (in temperament) → è duro di cuore
to take a hard line over sth → adottare una linea dura in merito a qc
to be hard on sb → essere severo/a con qn
to be a hard worker → essere un(a) gran/grande lavoratore/trice
c. (difficult, gen) → arduo/a, difficile
I find it hard to believe that ... → stento or faccio fatica a credere che... + sub
to be hard to please → essere esigente, essere difficile da accontentare
2. adv (push) → forte; (work) → sodo; (think, try) → bene; (hit) → forte, duramente
to freeze hard → gelare
it's snowing/raining hard → sta nevicando/piovendo forte
he was breathing hard → respirava affannosamente
to be hard hit (fig) → essere duramente colpito/a
to be hard done by (fam) → essere trattato/a ingiustamente or molto male
to be hard at it (fam) → darci dentro
to be hard put (to it) to do sth → essere in difficoltà a fare qc
to try one's hardest to do sth → fare di tutto per fare qc
to take sth hard → prendere (molto) male qc
to be hard up for sth → essere a corto di qc
to look hard at → guardare fissamente, esaminare attentamente
to drink hard → essere un(a) forte bevitore/trice

hard

(haːd) adjective
1. firm; solid; not easy to break, scratch etc. The ground is too hard to dig.
2. not easy to do, learn, solve etc. Is English a hard language to learn?; He is a hard man to please.
3. not feeling or showing kindness. a hard master.
4. (of weather) severe. a hard winter.
5. having or causing suffering. a hard life; hard times.
6. (of water) containing many chemical salts and so not easily forming bubbles when soap is added. The water is hard in this part of the country.
adverb
1. with great effort. He works very hard; Think hard.
2. with great force; heavily. Don't hit him too hard; It was raining hard.
3. with great attention. He stared hard at the man.
4. to the full extent; completely. The car turned hard right.
ˈharden verb
to make or become hard. Don't touch the toffee till it hardens; Try not to harden your heart against him.
ˈhardness noun
ˈhardship noun
(something which causes) pain, suffering etc. a life full of hardship.
ˈhard-and-fast adjective
(of rules) that can never be changed or ignored.
ˈhard-back noun
a book with a hard cover. Hard-backs are more expensive than paperbacks.
ˌhard-ˈboiled adjective
(of eggs) boiled until the white and the yolk are solid.
hardˈdisk noun
a device that is fixed inside a computer and is used for storing information.
ˈhard-earned adjective
earned by hard work or with difficulty. I deserve every penny of my hard-earned wages.
ˌhard-ˈheaded adjective
practical; shrewd; not influenced by emotion. a hard-headed businessman.
ˌhard-ˈhearted adjective
not feeling or showing pity or kindness. a hard-hearted employer.
ˈhardware noun
1. metal goods such as pots, tools etc. This shop sells hardware.
2. the mechanical parts of a computer.
ˌhard-ˈwearing adjective
that will not wear out easily. a hard-wearing fabric.
be hard on
1. to punish or criticize severely. Don't be too hard on the boy – he's too young to know that he was doing wrong.
2. to be unfair to. If you punish all the children for the broken window it's a bit hard on those who had nothing to do with it.
hard at it
busy doing (something). I've been hard at it all day, trying to get this report finished.
hard done by
unfairly treated. You should complain to the headmaster if you feel hard done by.
hard lines/luck
bad luck. Hard lines/luck! I'm afraid you haven't won this time; It's hard luck that he broke his leg.
hard of hearing
rather deaf. He is a bit hard of hearing now.
a hard time (of it)
trouble, difficulty, worry etc. The audience gave the speaker a hard time of it at the meeting; The speaker had a hard time (of it) trying to make himself heard.
hard up
not having much especially money. I'm a bit hard up at the moment; I'm hard up for envelopes.

hard

بِقُوَّة, صَعْب, صُلْب těžký, tvrdě, tvrdý hård, hårdt, svær hart, schwer, schwierig δυσχερής, σκληρά, σκληρός con fuerza, difícil, duro kova, kovasti, vaikea dur, durement marljivo, težak, tvrd difficile, duramente, duro 困難な, 堅い, 懸命に 단단한, 어려운, 열심히 hard, moeilijk hard, hardt, vanskelig ciężko, trudny, twardy difícil, duramente, duro сложный, твердый, усердно hård, hårt, svår แข็ง, ทำงานหนัก, ยาก güç, sert, zor chăm chỉ, cứng, khó khăn 努力地, 困难的, 硬的

hard

a. duro-a, endurecido-a, sólido; trabajoso-a, difícil; [bone] osificado;
___ of hearingmedio sordo;
adv. a duras penas, difícilmente, escasamente;
v.
to grow ___endurecerse; [parturition];
___laborparto laborioso.

hard

adj duro; — of hearing que no oye bien, duro de oído
References in classic literature ?
Nobody spoke for a minute; then Meg said in an altered tone, "You know the reason Mother proposed not having any presents this Christmas was because it is going to be a hard winter for everyone; and she thinks we ought not to spend money for pleasure, when our men are suffering so in the army.
As soon as the snow had packed hard, I began to drive about the country in a clumsy sleigh that Otto Fuchs made for me by fastening a wooden goods-box on bobs.
How to cure such a dyspepsia it were hard to say, unless by administering three or four boat loads of Brandreth's pills, and then running out of harm's way, as laborers do in blasting rocks.
But when it came to breaking in, that was a bad time for me; several men came to catch me, and when at last they closed me in at one corner of the field, one caught me by the forelock, another caught me by the nose and held it so tight I could hardly draw my breath; then another took my under jaw in his hard hand and wrenched my mouth open, and so by force they got on the halter and the bar into my mouth; then one dragged me along by the halter, another flogging behind, and this was the first experience I had of men's kindness; it was all force.
You always were hard on me, and you always will be.
A hard sou'-wester startles you with its close horizon and its low gray sky, as if the world were a dungeon wherein there is no rest for body or soul.
Adam sat looking at the clock: the minute-hand was hurrying along the last five minutes to ten with a loud, hard, indifferent tick, and Adam watched the movement and listened to the sound as if he had had some reason for doing so.
The only thing I can think about now is being hard up.
It was hard, monotonous work, with none of the joy and blood-stir that went with flying over hard surface.
So the Sun retired behind a cloud, and the Wind began to blow as hard as it could upon the traveller.
AN Insurance Agent was trying to induce a Hard Man to Deal With to take out a policy on his house.
Don't think it is easy to do this; it is very hard to give up the best day of all, but I feel so selfish to have all the pleasure and Phebe none, that I wish to make this sacrifice.