Methodologies included otolith and multi-part hardparts
analysis of prey in scat, and examination of stomach contents.
The most widely validated method for determining age of fish is osseochronometry, the estimation of age using hardparts
Evolution of calcareous hardparts
in primitive mollusks.
Further, virtually all species with preservable hardparts
tend to be present in local fossil assemblages, commonly in correct rank abundances, although the smaller body sizes are underrepresented.
As time permitted, length and sex data were recorded for individual animals, and biological samples (gonads, hardparts
for ageing, stomachs, tissue samples, etc.
2) As direct evidence of organism-shell interaction, the presence of Podichnus shows that individuals of Waconella wacoensis attached themselves to other living individuals of the same species in gregarious fashion, and that the process of taphonomic feedback, the interaction of living animals with dead hardparts
(Kidwell and Jablonski, 1983), occurred in marine communities of the Texas Cretaceous.
Taphonomic feedback in Miocene assemblages: Testing the role of dead hardparts
in benthic communities.