The corals in the turbid water of Australia rely more on heterotrophy
than do corals from oligotrophic waters (Anthony, 2000), which may indicate that the former animals have adapted to a larger presence of prey or to lower light intensities in these environments.
However, plantlets produced from in vitro cultures have to switch from heterotrophy
to autotrophy and possess abnormal anatomical and physiological characteristics, such as under developed leaf cuticle and lower stomatal density, which necessitates acclimatization in order for them to cope with edaphoclimatic conditions (BARBOZA et al.
Shifting roles of heterotrophy
and autotrophy in coral energetics under varying turbidity.
Consequently, the pelagic NPP showed net heterotrophy
in St 02 and St 15, net autotrophy in St 30 and St 60, and values next to equilibrium in St 90 and St 120 (Tukey-Kramer, p<0.
Methodological tests of a heterotrophy
index for aquatic ecosystems.
Garneau ME, Vicent WF, Terrado R, Lovejoy C (2009) Importance of particle-associated bacterial heterotrophy
in a coastal Arctic ecosystem.
[Edmunds, 2011]) and the rate of calcification (Holcomb et al.
Because juvenile nutrition is a balance between phototrophy and heterotrophy
(Mingoa-Licuanan & Gomez 2007), in such a scenario, nutrition limitation occurs and clam growth will be affected adversely.
Thus the fungus was a degenerate, a shameful criminal organism that turned to heterotrophy
and forfeited its self-sufficiency within the solar economy.
On the other hand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a potential factor for the removal of oxygen from superficial waters, because of the utilization of the organic matter for the production of energy and the multiplication of aerobic heterotrophy
bacteria and mainly depends on the oxygen demand for the microbial activity as a result of the readily available carbon compounds for oxidation.
Litterfall dynamics and nutrient decomposition of arid mangroves in the Gulf of California: Their role sustaining ecosystem heterotrophy
High frequency metabolism study in a large and shallow temperate lake revealed seasonal switching between net autotrophy and net heterotrophy