The discovery of these four catalysts for energy production, called hexokinases
, generated more research into how the body metabolizes carbohydrates, and how interfering with those enzymes through medications could help manage metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
activity was assayed by the method of Brandstrup et al.
The nair, schizophrenic and autistic group had (1) increased cytochrome F420 activity, cholesterol oxidase activity, ring oxidase activity, aromatase activity and digoxin synthesis (2) had decreased PDH activity as indicated by increased pyruvate and lactate levels with low acetyl CoA levels (3) had increased glycolysis as indicated by increased hexokinase
activity and mitochondrial dysfunction as noted by increased cyto C activity in the serum and low ATP levels (4) had low cholesterol and bile acid levels and increased homocysteine levels (5) had increased GABA shunt pathway as indicated by increased pyruvate, glutamate and ammonia levels (6) had increased porphyrin synthesis from substrates glycine and succinyl CoA derived from GABA shunt pathway as indicated by increased ALA levels.
2_110 13 Cytidine deaminase HmC4778_234 14 Fasciclin domain-containing protein HmSNP4691_183 14 Heat shock protein 70 Hm3Dl0_1 15 Hemocyaninlike HmC4791_1099 15 Hypothetical protein HmC1449_847 16 Insulinlike growth factor binding protein 7 HmC18774_676 16 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA HmC22449_261 16 Protein disulfide isomerase HmC3835_411 16 Sorbitol dehydrogenase HmC45_3002 16 Hillarin HmC6061_1289 16 Phosphoglycerate mutase 2 HmC929_2563 17 Hexokinase
Hm3B4_2 18A Ribosomal protein 1 Hm3B4_7 18A Ribosomal protein l HmC253_1545 18C PDZ and LIM domain protein Zasp Hmid2044 18C Hemocyanin Isoform 1 HmidILL2.
activity on d 28 was numerically, but not significantly increased by L-carnitine supplementation (p = 0.
Membrane potential-dependent conformational changes in mitochondrially bound hexokinase
Inhibition of glucokinase and hexokinase
from pancreatic B-cells and liver by alloxan, alloxantin, dialuric acid, and t-butylhydroperoxide.
Increases in glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase
and PFK due to SIT have been shown as well (MacDougall et al.
18] Among these mechanisms are induction of expression and membrane translocation of glucose transporters, increased hexokinase
expression and activity, and activation of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1).
Starving a cell of hexokinase
is like sending a chemical memo that less energy is coming in.
Metabolic status linked alterations in cell signaling related to defense against oxidative stress, redox signaling and damage response pathways, particularly the downregulation of mitochondrial dependent apoptosis in tumour cells with enhanced glucose usage and Hexokinase
II levels have been observed (126).
226 was the one which correlated best with the hexokinase
plasma reference method.