Moreover, in comparison with the clerical, hierarchic, and hierocratic
centralized administrative structure of the Catholic Church, the Islamic umma, at least within the Sunni tradition, has a more conciliar, egalitarian, laic, and decentralized structure.
Patronage was a fashionable act, and Gundersheimer makes it even clearer why this was so by linking it to a kind of social anthropological approach ("Big Man systems"), by defining it as a "dominant social process," and by introducing it as a complex cultural practice which seemed able to subsume almost everything from the hierocratic
Middle Ages through the absolutistic Renaissance, gallant Baroque and humanistic Classical to the early industrial Romantic worlds.
A traditional hierocratic
view, often associated with the medieval theorist John of Salisbury, is that God has delegated to the Church all power over temporal and spiritual affairs but has temporarily ceded temporal power to the earthly ruler.
If resources are allocated according to hierocratic
criteria, we have no way of determining whether such investments were profitable or not (Mises, 1920), except by comparing their results with similar ones which develop on the market.
Kings and emperors, unsurprisingly, did not subscribe to this hierocratic
In spite of occasional convoluted sentences like "conciliar institutionalization of hierocratic
authority," Arjomand describes, in some detail, how Khamenehi began to institutionalize his power--even to the detriment of Rafsanjani who had engineered his rise to the pinnacle of power.
It was remarkably close, as others have noted, to medieval hierocratic
Tamil politicians have become even more hierocratic
with their conduct.
In the final chapter, "The Politics of Election and of Following," Ward uncompromisingly advocates a theocratic approach to political life (though not in a hierocratic
form) but from the standpoint that God alone is truly sovereign.
Rather, Jacopone represented a major component in the papalist formulation of a hierocratic
ecclesiology, which itself would be exploited by Pope John XXII against the Spirituals.
Has it all simply been suppressed in what comes through as a piece of hierocratic
The first one, the theocratic, illustrates a pre-eminent ecclesiastical power, whereas in the second category, within a hierocratic
society a secular power is dominant but depends on religious legitimacy.