The use of a high number of MIRU-VNTR loci also reduces the likelihood of homoplasy
For example, the higher level relationships of Sonorelix and Sonorella have been studied and discussed in depth due to their similarity in reproductive structure, but there is no consensus on whether they are both simplified due to homoplasy
or are closely related in lineage (Miller and Naranjo-Garcia 1991, Roth 1996).
However, if microsatellite similarities were due to homoplasy
instead of true identity-by-descent, we would not be able to detect evolutionary differences using these methods, which could possibly result in putative subspecies that are less-similar than reported here (Garza and Freimer, 1996).
Finally, 1 locus, Ccmic9, showed evidence of allelic homoplasy
Data from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers show indication of size homoplasy
and of a relationship between degree of homoplasy
and fragment size.
This taxonomic disorder still continues in this group partly because there is no robust phylogenetic tree that enables to disentangle "genuine" relationships from homoplasy
and mutation model at microsatellite loci and their consequences for population genetics analysis.
and the delineation of holophyletic genera in some insect groups.
Thus, microsatellite markers can reflect recent (within the last 10,000 years) and almost contemporaneous events, but increases in homoplasy
associated with microsatellites reduce their ability to capture older demographic events (Hard and Clark 2007, Hughes 2010).
Quantification of homoplasy
for nucleotide transitions and transversions and a reexamination of assumptions in weighted phylogenetic analysis.
Wimberger, 1993, "The Usefulness of Behavior for Phylogeny Estimation: Levels of Homoplasy
in Behavioral and Morphological Characters", Evolution, vol.
In the present case, the observed variation is expressed as homoplasy
in different lineages, agreeing with the low informativeness of the genitalic region, as a consequence of accelerated and divergent sexual selection pressures (Mendez & Cordoba-Aguilar, 2004; Song & Wenzel, 2008; Song & Bucheli, 2010).