Since dietary oxalate intake accounts for such a small amount of the oxalates actually found in the urine of people who form calcium oxalate stones, it is now fairly well accepted that dietary restriction of oxalate-containing foods is not a viable therapeutic intervention to prevent stone formation, except in a few rare circumstances: hypercalciuria
type II and hyperoxaluria (primary and enteric).
Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria
have been observed with use of Enstilar[sup.
Prolonged bed rest promotes bone resorption and hypercalciuria
and increases the risk of urolithiasis; however it is unknown whether physical inactivity is associated with increased risk of urolithiasis.
The most common adverse reactions associated with Natpara and occurring in greater than 10% of individuals were: paresthesia, hypocalcemia, headache, hypercalcemia, nausea, and hypoesthesia, diarrhea, vomiting, arthralgia, hypercalciuria
and pain in extremity.
There is hypercalciuria
, although the risk of renal stones is not increased as inhibitors of stone formation also increase.
MBD in long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) was first described in the early 1980's when studies from large home parenteral nutrition (HPN) programs began to report that many of their patients developed debilitating bone pain, weakness, hypercalciuria
The relationship between urinary calcium, sodium and potassium excretion and the role of potassium in treating idiopathic hypercalciuria
Also posterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis and vasculitis Liver 12 40 - 70% have granulomas, up to 30% have hepatomegaly, and significant dysfunction is rare Nervous 5 - 10 Any part of the nervous system system can be involved (most common is unilateral facial nerve palsy and meningitis) Bone marrow 4 - 20 Anaemia and leukopenia common but not diagnostic Blood 4 - 11 Hypercalciuria
in up to 40%, renal calculi in 10% Cardiac 5 - 10 Up to 76% have cardiac involvement at autopsy Bone/joint 0.
Hypercalcemia occurred in 9% of patients, and hypercalciuria
developed in 33%.
Hypercalcemia without hypercalciuria
or hypophosphatemia, calcinosis and renal insufficiency: a syndrome following prolonged intake of milk and alkali.
NPS's earlier stage pipeline includes two calcilytic compounds, NPSP790 and NPSP795, with potential application in rare disorders involving increased calcium receptor activity, such as autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria
The Food Standards Agency (2003) states that excess vitamin D may result in hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria
, resulting in the deposition of calcium in soft tissues, demineralisation of bone and 'irreversible renal and cardiac toxicity'.