This cell loss generally occurs in the teens or young adulthood and results in excessive daytime sleepiness, hypnogogic
hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and, in many cases, cataplexy.
misinterpretation, fraud, hypnogogic
and hypnopompic states, electrical faults).
Table 1 Causes of visual hallucinations (7) Causes of visual hallucinations Neurological disorders Parkinson's disease Lewy body dementia Epilepsy Brain stem lesions such as peduncular hallucinosis Migraine coma Narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome Psychiatric disorders Acute psychosis Schizophrenia Delirium Affective disorder Conversion reaction Toxic and metabolic Drug and alcohol withdrawal states Metabolic encephalopathies Hallucinogenic agents Medications or toxic side effects Miscellaneous Intense emotional experiences such as bereavement Sensory and sleep deprivation Hypnopompic (sleep to waking) Hypnogogic
(wake to sleep) transitional states Charles Bonnet syndrome
Lewis-Williams depicts the spectrum of consciousness as a line, with alert problem-solving consciousness on the left, bifurcating halfway, the top branch indicating the intensified trajectory of trance states and the lower branch indicating the normal trajectory of hypnogogic
states, dreaming and unconsciousness (2002: 125; 2004: 31).
resonance "is a place of primary process mutuality in which the analyst can find relevant meaning in its personal manifestations of eidetic imagery, vivid sounds, smells, or various kinesthetic sensations.
No, you're experiencing a hypnogogic
He waits through the night with his hosts, undergoing hypnogogic
images as he struggles to stay awake and warm.
Stage Description Duration W Wakefulness ~16 hours N1 Somnolence; "drowsy," easily awakened 1-5% N2 Asleep -50% N3 Slow Wave Sleep ~7% (SWS) Transition to deep sleep N4 Slow Wave Sleep ~20-25% (SWS) Deep sleep REM1-4 Rapid Eye Movement ~20-25% Stage EEG Brainwave pattern Events and abnormalities W Alpha waves Daytime consciousness N1 Theta waves Hypnogogic
twitches, hallucinations N2 Slower waves, sleep spindles, K-complexes Unconsciousness N3 <50% delta waves Melatonin peak, (SWS) night terrors, parasomnias N4 >50% delta waves Minimum core temperature, (SWS) rebounds after deprivation REM1-4 Rapid low-voltage EEG Dreaming, low muscle tone, rebounds after deprivation