manufactures an implantable device that stimulates multiple tongue muscles via the hypoglossal nerve
, which opens the airway while a patient is sleeping.
The canal of the hypoglossal nerve
is located at the anterolateral margin of this foramen (Kizilkanat et al.
However, oropharyngeal involvement (secondary glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerve
palsy) mostly accompanies MS, though it is sometimes overlooked (6).
Sleep medicine, otolaryngology, and other medical specialists from the US, Asia, and Europe discuss the history of sleep medicine; the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, diagnosis through drug-induced sleep endoscopy, and treatment outcomes; the history of sleep surgery; novel positional devices for the treatment of positional obstructive sleep apnea; the updated Friedman staging system; advances in CPAP therapy and oral appliances; updates to nasal, palate, hypopharyngeal, minimally invasive, and box surgery; multilevel obstructive sleep apnea surgery; hypoglossal nerve
stimulation systems; robotic surgery; pediatric obstructive sleep apnea; and future perspectives.
Therefore, it is important to consider the possible causes of hypoglossal nerve
palsy related to surgery or anesthesia, including intubation, the surgical positions, and mask ventilation during recovery.
3) Important structures seen surrounding the styloid process laterally are the facial nerve, the hypoglossal nerve
, the occipital artery and the posterior belly of digastric muscle.
The contents of the SLS include muscles, the hypoglossal nerve
, the lingual nerve, lingual artery and vein, sublingual gland and ducts, the deep portion of the submandibular gland and duct and lymph nodes.
Initial report on the limited value of hypoglossal nerve
transfer to treat brachial plexus root avulsions.
To carry out this review, information was collected by way of article searches in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, LILACS and PEDro, using the MeSH terms: sleep apnea, obstructive; airway obstruction; obesity; sleep apnea and death; cardiovascular diseases; cognitive disorders; mental disorders; kidney diseases; endocrine system disease; metabolic syndrome X; comorbidity; therapeutics; continuos positive airway pressure; mandibular advancement; hypoglossal nerve
and electric stimulation.
sup] During surgery, the internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, hypoglossal nerve
and sympathetic trunk were preserved.
palsy (CN-XII) causes swallowing disturbance and masticatory dysfunction, as well as dysarthria and anarthria.
Musculature of tongue, innervated by the Hypoglossal Nerve
(CN XII), except for the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the Vagus nerve) is formed by the Occipital somites.