21) argue that whereas taxis can be divided into parataxis and hypotaxis
, the logico-semantic relationships are of two broad kinds: expansion (comprising extension, enhancement and elaboration) and projection (comprising locution and idea) (cf.
In that language, intervening material of the kind discussed here (79) between the subject and the main verb is common to every subordinate clause, and there is no evidence that this may be a readability or comprehensibility problem for speakers (Thurmair; Marschall; Wegener; Bisiada, "From Hypotaxis
to Parataxis" 49).
It tends to hypotaxis
, to monologue, to reification, and agglomeration.
His prose is therefore irreducible to sound bites, rejoicing as it does in long, rhapsodic sentences that stretch over countless subordinate clauses--a style only within reach of a master of hypotaxis
Typically, written language becomes complex by being lexically dense: it packs a large number of lexical items into each clause; whereas spoken language becomes complex by being grammatically intricate: it builds up elaborate clause complexes out of parataxis and hypotaxis
4) Although we have, in this second typology, a predominance of parataxis over hypotaxis
and a very simple syntactical structure, there is a sense of deliberateness in the flow of these passages.
, the clumsy failures and self-doubts that lead one to
In a way, the boundaries between hypotaxis
and parataxis are more fluid, since this concessive juxtaposition (queiram ou nao [like it or not], for example) profiles a typically coordinating alternative construction, in formal terms; on the other hand, it also takes on a circumstantial hypotactic value of concession, attributing greater emphasis or vitality to the speech.
The utilization of hypotaxis
, "but," points to a position difference between what comes before and what comes after.
1) In terms of taxis, clauses are in a relationship based on either hypotaxis
(relations of dependency) or on parataxis (relationship of equals).
Lack of semantic specialization is not, in and of itself, conclusive proof that hypotaxis
has only recently been introduced, but it certainly indicates that the language has not yet given rise to an elaborate range of syntactic-rhetorical possibilities.
Although many critics align Carson's writing with the "open-ended" musings of Montaigne (Carson, "Gifts" 17), in the D'Agata interview Carson prefers to think of herself as an heir to Cicero, who maintains an urbane interest in rhetorical form, hypotaxis
(hence her frequent use of a scholarly introduction to frame her narrative poems), and what Carson calls, in nearly every interview, "the facts.