development begins during the preflexion stage, by 5.
Vertebrae (including the Weberian ossicles and the hypural
complex) were counted by examining the negatives of roentgenograms.
The SL was measured from the tip of the snout, horizontally, to the posterior tip of the notochord at the hypural
plate, while TL was measured from the tip of the snout, horizontally, to the tip of the depressed caudal fin (Hubbs and Lagler 2004).
Lengths given for specimens are standard length (SL), the straight-line distance from the median anterior point of the upper lip to the base of the caudal fin (posterior end of the hypural
Additionally, 3 to 4 pairs of neuromasts begin to develop in the area of the developing hypural
1 mm: standard length (SL--measurement from the tip of the snout to the tip of the notochord or posterior tip of hypural
plates); head length (HL --measurement from tip of snout to end of operculum); eye diameter (measurement taken along widest part of eye); snout length (measurement from tip of snout to anterior edge of eye); body depth (vertical measurement taken at the pectoral-fin base); body depth at the anus (vertical measurement taken at the anus); snout to anus length (preanal length); snout to anal-fin origin; and snout to dorsal-fin origin.
After measuring standard length (tip of mouth to posterior end of hypural
plate), we measured length of gonopodium (from anterior insertion to end of distal tip; Langerhans et al.
diastema well separates them, defining the upper and 1 lower lobes of the caudal fin.
Standard length measures the distance from the tip of the longest jaw to the end of the hypural
bone or caudal peduncle; however, there has been a debate regarding where the caudal peduncle or hypural
bone ends (Howe, 2002).
0 mm) measurements were from the middle of the eye to the posterior edge of the hypural
Early flexion includes the interval from hatching until the formation of the 4th hypural
and epurals, at which point the specimen is considered midflexion.
Vertebrae 9 + 16 + hypural
= 26; parapophysis developed from the sixth vertebra, its processes widely diverging, directed outward and downward.