He divides the utterances produced by a speaker into three groups as locutionary act, illocutionary
act and perlocutionary act and writes that the interpretation of a locutionary act is an issue of meaning whereas the interpretation of an illocutionary
act is an issue of force.
However, the effects of such an extraordinary display of illocutionary
force are, to say the least, dubious.
We could say, in other words, that among the illocutionary
speech acts, such things as promising and pronouncing judgment and persuading, there is also simple description or the giving of information.
In Sylva Sylvaruvn, the skin is the illocutionary
interface between the familiar and unfamiliar, a screen for the body's "starting reflex:' Bacon describes the bristling of skin as the "erection of the spirits" that takes place in a scene of encounter described as an "inquisition" between body and world:
In Winograd's research, SAT was utilized to develop the coordinator for supporting communication in an office setting (Kethers and Schoop 2000), with the cooperative process among the users having five illocutionary
points proposed by Searle (Winograd 1986).
Ohmann appropriates Austin's perspective and, attempting to apply his theory to literature, considers that even though illocutionary
acts exist in literature, they are without consequences for the performers:
5) In these possible cases of pragmatic impairment, the tutor can try an explicit Illocutionary
Force Indicating Device or other compensatory moves and tell the tutee the intent behind the utterance in addition to engaging in meta-discourse about the communication in the tutoring session.
However, if the intent is clear, then the intended power or illocutionary
force of the utterance should be conveyed.
Borrowing the idea from British philosopher John Langshaw Austin, Habermas has shown that individuals in a society can communicate with one another through illocutionary
and perlocutionary affect (interaction between speaker and listener).
In fact my understanding of the encounters that occurred over the course of one semester after I had returned to work from a medical leave did seem to make some sense, or so I thought, until I was confronted with a very different understanding of the communicative intent--Grice's illocutionary
force--on the part of HR at the very beginning of the second semester of my return (Finegan, 2004, p.
exhibits this kind of character and is called an illocutionary
In particular, Austin's (1975: 97-120) discussion of illocutionary
and perlocutionary acts informs the analytical approach taken in this research--specifically, the notion of an illocution as what a person creates when s/he produces meaningful utterances (i.