The motility of each spermatozoon was graded as "RPFM" (rapid progressive forward movement), "SPFM" (slowly progressive forward movement) "RM" (residual motion) and "ML" (motionless) and percentages of motile and immotile
sperm were obtained (23).
25) To evaluate sperm motility, the sperm cells were classified as immotile
(IM, no movement), non-progressive motile (NP, all other patterns of motility with an absence of forward progression, e.
Sperm counts were expressed as the sum of five squares on the hemo-cvtometer, and the percent motility was determined by counting both motile and immotile
spermatozoa per area.
63-mm2 microscopic field represented by each stack contained up to 10 to 20 immotile
sperm that exhibited no flagellar motion; these were ignored in our analysis.
22) It is possible that immotile
and non-progressive motile spermatozoa may possess abnormalities or absence of centrioles.
He also noticed that three of the men had situs inversus, and he hypothesized that other immotile
cilia were also responsible for that oddity.
The diagnostic criteria recommended for this syndrome are history of chronic bronchial infection and rhinitis from early childhood, combined with one or more of following features: (a) situs inversus or dextrocardia in a patient or a sibling, (b) living but immotile
spermatozoa, (c) tracheobronchial clearance, which is absent or nearly so.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) manual criteria (2010), spermatozoa are categorized as progressively motile, non-progressively motile and immotile
by computer-assisted sperm assay (CASA) in the semen routine examination (5).
An apical disc is also lacking, but there are some ciliated cells with immotile
cilia located near what would be the apical disc if it were present.
This is possibly due to a much slower rate of mucociliary clearance of inhaled agents from OE-lined ethmoid turbinates, which are covered by immotile
cilia, compared with other parts of the nasal cavity that are lined by respiratory epithelium containing motile cilia with high ciliary beat frequencies.
Semen analysis showed oligospermia with immotile
Robert Casper and his colleagues at the University of Toronto, Canada used hypo-osmotic swelling test for selection of viable immotile
sperm for ICSI procedure in men with complete astheno-zoospermia (74).