include


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in·clude

 (ĭn-klo͞od′)
tr.v. in·clud·ed, in·clud·ing, in·cludes
1. To contain or take in as a part, element, or member.
2. To consider as part of or allow into a group or class: thanked the host for including us.

[Middle English includen, from Latin inclūdere, to enclose : in-, in; see in-2 + claudere, to close.]

in·clud′a·ble, in·clud′i·ble adj.
Synonyms: include, comprise, comprehend, embrace, encompass
These verbs mean to take in or contain as part of something larger. Include often implies an incomplete listing: "Through the process of amendment, interpretation and court decision I have finally been included in 'We, the people'" (Barbara C. Jordan).
Comprise usually implies that all of the components are stated: The book comprises 15 chapters.
Comprehend, embrace, and encompass usually refer to the taking in of subordinate elements: My field of study comprehends several disciplines. This theory embraces many facets of human behavior. The debate encompassed all points of view.
Usage Note: The word include generally suggests that what follows is a partial list, not an exhaustive list, of the contents of what the subject refers to. Therefore a sentence like New England includes Connecticut and Rhode Island is acceptable, since it implies that there are states that are also a part of New England but are not mentioned in the list, and in fact this is correct. When a full enumeration is given, a different construction, such as one using comprise or consist of, must be used: New England comprises/consists of (not includes) Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. There are cases, however, in which include does not rule out the possibility of a complete listing, as when the exact makeup of the subject is unknown or yet to be determined. Thus the sentence The bibliography should include all the journal articles you have used does not entail that the bibliography must contain something other than journal articles, though it does leave that possibility open. Another case in which the list following include may be exhaustive is when the list explicitly or implicitly describes what is not included. Thus, We decided to include only those artists who had written works within the last five years is acceptable, since the set of artists not included is implicitly defined as those who have not written works within the last five years. The same goes for cases of explicit exclusion from the list: My shopping list includes everything you told me to buy, and nothing else. See Usage Note at comprise.

include

(ɪnˈkluːd)
vb (tr)
1. to have as contents or part of the contents; be made up of or contain
2. to add as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category
3. to contain as a secondary or minor ingredient or element
[C15 (in the sense: to enclose): from Latin inclūdere to enclose, from in-2 + claudere to close]
inˈcludable, inˈcludible adj

in•clude

(ɪnˈklud)

v.t. -clud•ed, -clud•ing.
1. to contain or encompass as part of a whole: The meal includes dessert and coffee.
2. to place as part of a category.
3. to enclose.
[1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin inclūdere to shut in =in- in-2 + claudere to shut (compare close)]
in•clud′a•ble, in•clud′i•ble, adj.
syn: include, comprehend, comprise, embrace imply containing parts of a whole. include means to contain as a part or member of a larger whole; it may indicate one, several, or all parts: This anthology includes works by Sartre and Camus. The price includes appetizer, main course, and dessert. comprehend means to have within the limits or scope of a larger whole: The plan comprehends several projects. comprise means to consist of; it usu. indicates all of the various parts serving to make up the whole: This genus comprises 50 species. embrace emphasizes the extent or assortment of that which is included: The report embraces many subjects.

include

If one thing includes another, it has that thing as one of its parts.

He is a former president of the Campania region, which includes Naples.
A good British breakfast always includes sausages.

Be Careful!
You do not use 'include' when mentioning all the parts of something. Instead, you use a word such as comprise.

include


Past participle: included
Gerund: including

Imperative
include
include
Present
I include
you include
he/she/it includes
we include
you include
they include
Preterite
I included
you included
he/she/it included
we included
you included
they included
Present Continuous
I am including
you are including
he/she/it is including
we are including
you are including
they are including
Present Perfect
I have included
you have included
he/she/it has included
we have included
you have included
they have included
Past Continuous
I was including
you were including
he/she/it was including
we were including
you were including
they were including
Past Perfect
I had included
you had included
he/she/it had included
we had included
you had included
they had included
Future
I will include
you will include
he/she/it will include
we will include
you will include
they will include
Future Perfect
I will have included
you will have included
he/she/it will have included
we will have included
you will have included
they will have included
Future Continuous
I will be including
you will be including
he/she/it will be including
we will be including
you will be including
they will be including
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been including
you have been including
he/she/it has been including
we have been including
you have been including
they have been including
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been including
you will have been including
he/she/it will have been including
we will have been including
you will have been including
they will have been including
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been including
you had been including
he/she/it had been including
we had been including
you had been including
they had been including
Conditional
I would include
you would include
he/she/it would include
we would include
you would include
they would include
Past Conditional
I would have included
you would have included
he/she/it would have included
we would have included
you would have included
they would have included
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.include - have as a part, be made up out of; "The list includes the names of many famous writers"
contain, incorporate, comprise - include or contain; have as a component; "A totally new idea is comprised in this paper"; "The record contains many old songs from the 1930's"
embrace, encompass, comprehend, cover - include in scope; include as part of something broader; have as one's sphere or territory; "This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds"; "this should cover everyone in the group"
involve - contain as a part; "Dinner at Joe's always involves at least six courses"
subsume - contain or include; "This new system subsumes the old one"
contain, bear, carry, hold - contain or hold; have within; "The jar carries wine"; "The canteen holds fresh water"; "This can contains water"
inhere in, attach to - be part of; "This problem inheres in the design"
exclude - lack or fail to include; "The cost for the trip excludes food and beverages"
2.include - consider as part of something; "I include you in the list of culprits"
count - include as if by counting; "I can count my colleagues in the opposition"
colligate, subsume - consider (an instance of something) as part of a general rule or principle
consider, regard, view, reckon, see - deem to be; "She views this quite differently from me"; "I consider her to be shallow"; "I don't see the situation quite as negatively as you do"
carry - include, as on a list; "How many people are carried on the payroll?"
exclude, leave out, omit, leave off, except, take out - prevent from being included or considered or accepted; "The bad results were excluded from the report"; "Leave off the top piece"
3.include - add as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category; "We must include this chemical element in the group"
chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions
add - make an addition (to); join or combine or unite with others; increase the quality, quantity, size or scope of; "We added two students to that dorm room"; "She added a personal note to her letter"; "Add insult to injury"; "Add some extra plates to the dinner table"
4.include - allow participation in or the right to be part ofinclude - allow participation in or the right to be part of; permit to exercise the rights, functions, and responsibilities of; "admit someone to the profession"; "She was admitted to the New Jersey Bar"
countenance, permit, allow, let - consent to, give permission; "She permitted her son to visit her estranged husband"; "I won't let the police search her basement"; "I cannot allow you to see your exam"
admit, take on, accept, take - admit into a group or community; "accept students for graduate study"; "We'll have to vote on whether or not to admit a new member"
induct, initiate - accept people into an exclusive society or group, usually with some rite; "African men are initiated when they reach puberty"
readmit - admit again or anew; "After paying a penalty, the player was readmitted"
involve - engage as a participant; "Don't involve me in your family affairs!"

include

verb
2. count, introduce, make a part of, number among I had worked hard to be included in a project like this.
3. add, enter, put in, insert You should include details of all your benefits.

include

verb
Translations
يَتَضَمَّنُيَشْمَل، يَشتَمِل
zahrnoutzahrnovat
inkludereindbefatte
inkluzivi
sisällyttää
uključivati
beleveszbenne vanbevesz
telja meî
含む
포함하다
imtinaiįskaitantįtraukimasįtraukti
iekļautietvert
zahrnúť
priloženvključiti
inkludera
นับรวมเข้าด้วย
bao gồm

include

[ɪnˈkluːd] VTincluir; (with letter) → adjuntar, incluir
facilities include a gym, swimming pool and saunalas instalaciones disponen de gimnasio, piscina y sauna
your name is not included in the listsu nombre no figura en la lista
does that remark include me?¿va ese comentario también por mí?
he sold everything, books includedvendió todo, incluso los libros
service is/is not includedel servicio está/no está or (LAm) va/no va incluido
all the team members, myself includedtodos los miembros del equipo, incluido yo
include out VT + ADV (hum) → excluir, dejar fuera
include me out!¡no contéis conmigo!

include

[ɪnˈkluːd] vt (= have as constituent) → inclure, comprendre
to be included (= chosen) (in team)être inclus(e); (in collection)être inclus(e)
His work is included in several major collections
BUT Son travail figure dans plusieurs grandes collections.

include

vteinschließen, enthalten; (on list, in group etc) → aufnehmen, einbeziehen; your name is not included on the listIhr Name ist nicht auf der Liste; service not includedBedienung nicht inbegriffen; all includedalles inklusive or inbegriffen; everyone, children includedalle einschließlich der Kinder; the invitation includes everybodydie Einladung betrifft alle; the hostages included three Britonsunter den Geiseln befanden sich drei Briten; does that include me?gilt das auch für mich?; shut up! you included or that includes youRuhe! Sie sind auch gemeint; to include somebody in one’s prayersjdn in sein Gebet einschließen; I worked hard to be included in the projectich habe mich sehr angestrengt, um an dem Projekt teilnehmen zu können; in which category would you include this?in welche Kategorie würden Sie das aufnehmen?; I think we should include a chapter on …ich finde, wir sollten auch ein Kapitel über … dazunehmen; the book includes two chapters on grammardas Buch enthält auch zwei Grammatikkapitel

include

[ɪnˈkluːd] vtcomprendere, includere
your name is not included in the list → il tuo nome non è incluso nella lista
he sold everything, books included → ha venduto tutto, compresi i libri
service is/is not included → il servizio è compreso/escluso

include

(iŋˈkluːd) verb
to take in or consider along with (other people, things etc) as part of a group, set etc. Am I included in the team?; Your duties include making the tea.
inˈclusion (-ʒən) noun
including preposition
The whole family has been ill, including the baby.
inˈclusive (-siv) adjective
counting both the first and last in a series. May 7 to May 9 inclusive is three days.

include

يَتَضَمَّنُ zahrnovat inkludere einschließen περιλαμβάνω incluir sisällyttää inclure uključivati includere 含む 포함하다 opnemen inkludere objąć incluir включать inkludera นับรวมเข้าด้วย dahil etmek bao gồm 包含
References in classic literature ?
He did not seem to know what to bless, but he looked as though he would have liked to include most of the universe.
He even darkly hinted that their success might be extended, with proper caution, in such a manner as to include the destruction of all whom they had reason to hate.
But the story would include a chain of events extending over the better part of two centuries, and, written out with reasonable amplitude, would fill a bigger folio volume, or a longer series of duodecimos, than could prudently be appropriated to the annals of all New England during a similar period.
I reflected acutely that the sense of such differences, such superiorities of quality, always, on the part of the majority--which could include even stupid, sordid headmasters-- turn infallibly to the vindictive.
Among these I here include the following chapters: -- I.
They had begun to question the old lady as to why one family had been unable to pay, trying to show her by figures that it ought to have been possible; and Grandmother Majauszkiene had disputed their figures-- "You say twelve dollars a month; but that does not include the interest.
Leaving that matter for the present, we will now proceed to consider other points in the case which we propose to establish by evidence, and shall include that one in the chain in its proper place.
Altogether, the Old Bailey, at that date, was a choice illustration of the precept, that "Whatever is is right;" an aphorism that would be as final as it is lazy, did it not include the troublesome consequence, that nothing that ever was, was wrong.
I have said that the company were all gone; but I ought to have excepted Uriah, whom I don't include in that denomination, and who had never ceased to hover near us.
Neither does the ransom include the Lady Rowena,'' said De Bracy.
She, seeing she was not in the list of the poet, asked him what he had seen in her that he did not include her in the number of the others, telling him he must add to his satire and put her in the new part, or else look out for the consequences.
It would be as absurd to doubt, that a right to pass all laws NECESSARY AND PROPER to execute its declared powers, would include that of requiring the assistance of the citizens to the officers who may be intrusted with the execution of those laws, as it would be to believe, that a right to enact laws necessary and proper for the imposition and collection of taxes would involve that of varying the rules of descent and of the alienation of landed property, or of abolishing the trial by jury in cases relating to it.