including


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in·clude

 (ĭn-klo͞od′)
tr.v. in·clud·ed, in·clud·ing, in·cludes
1. To contain or take in as a part, element, or member.
2. To consider as part of or allow into a group or class: thanked the host for including us.

[Middle English includen, from Latin inclūdere, to enclose : in-, in; see in-2 + claudere, to close.]

in·clud′a·ble, in·clud′i·ble adj.
Synonyms: include, comprise, comprehend, embrace, encompass
These verbs mean to take in or contain as part of something larger. Include often implies an incomplete listing: "Through the process of amendment, interpretation and court decision I have finally been included in 'We, the people'" (Barbara C. Jordan).
Comprise usually implies that all of the components are stated: The book comprises 15 chapters.
Comprehend, embrace, and encompass usually refer to the taking in of subordinate elements: My field of study comprehends several disciplines. This theory embraces many facets of human behavior. The debate encompassed all points of view.
Usage Note: The word include generally suggests that what follows is a partial list, not an exhaustive list, of the contents of what the subject refers to. Therefore a sentence like New England includes Connecticut and Rhode Island is acceptable, since it implies that there are states that are also a part of New England but are not mentioned in the list, and in fact this is correct. When a full enumeration is given, a different construction, such as one using comprise or consist of, must be used: New England comprises/consists of (not includes) Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. There are cases, however, in which include does not rule out the possibility of a complete listing, as when the exact makeup of the subject is unknown or yet to be determined. Thus the sentence The bibliography should include all the journal articles you have used does not entail that the bibliography must contain something other than journal articles, though it does leave that possibility open. Another case in which the list following include may be exhaustive is when the list explicitly or implicitly describes what is not included. Thus, We decided to include only those artists who had written works within the last five years is acceptable, since the set of artists not included is implicitly defined as those who have not written works within the last five years. The same goes for cases of explicit exclusion from the list: My shopping list includes everything you told me to buy, and nothing else. See Usage Note at comprise.

including

(ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ)
prep
forming part of the group of people or things under discussion
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:

including

preposition containing, with, counting, plus, together with, as well as, inclusive of seventeen Western hostages, including three Britons
Translations
بـِمَا فِيهِبِما فيه، بِضِمْنِه
včetně
inklusive
mukaan lukien
uključujući
òar meî talinn
・・・を含めて
...을 포함하여
vključno
inklusive
รวมทั้ง
dahil-de dahil
bao gồm cả

including

[ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ] PREP terms £80, not including serviceprecio 80 libras, servicio no incluido
$20, including post and packing$20 incluidos gastos de envío
seven including this onesiete con éste
everyone, including the Presidenttodos, incluido el Presidente
that applies to everyone, including youeso va por todos, tú incluido
up to and including chapter sevenhasta el capítulo siete inclusive

including

[ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ] prepy compris
It will be 200 euros, including tax → Ça coûtera deux cents euros, toutes taxes comprises.
including service charge → service compris
including postage and packing → port emballage compris
It costs £15.50, including postage and packing → Ça coûte 15,50 livres, port emballage compris.
nine people, including two Britons (= of whom two were) → neuf personnes, dont deux Anglais
Nine people were injured, including two Britons → Neuf personnes ont été blessées dont deux Anglais.
up to and including ... → jusqu'à ... inclus

including

prepeinschließlich, inklusive, inbegriffen, mit; that makes seven including youmit Ihnen sind das sieben; that comes to 100 euros including postage and packingdas kommt auf 100 EUR inklusive or einschließlich Porto und Verpackung; there were six rooms including kitchenmit Küche waren es sechs Zimmer, es waren sechs Zimmer einschließlich Küche; many people, including my father, had been invitedviele Leute, darunter mein Vater, waren eingeladen; including the service charge, including serviceinklusive Bedienung, Bedienung (mit) inbegriffen; up to and including chapter Vbis inklusive or einschließlich Kapitel V; up to and including March 4thbis einschließlich 4. März

including

[ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ] prepcompreso/a, incluso/a
including VAT → IVA compresa
seven books including this one → sette libri compreso or incluso questo
up to and including Chapter 12 → fino al capitolo 12 compreso or incluso

include

(iŋˈkluːd) verb
to take in or consider along with (other people, things etc) as part of a group, set etc. Am I included in the team?; Your duties include making the tea.
inˈclusion (-ʒən) noun
including preposition
The whole family has been ill, including the baby.
inˈclusive (-siv) adjective
counting both the first and last in a series. May 7 to May 9 inclusive is three days.

including

بـِمَا فِيهِ včetně inklusive einschließlich συμπεριλαμβανομένου incluyendo mukaan lukien y compris uključujući incluso ・・・を含めて ...을 포함하여 inclusief medregnet włączając incluindo включая inklusive รวมทั้ง dahil bao gồm cả 包括
References in classic literature ?
In the diagram each letter on the uppermost line may represent a genus including several species; and all the genera on this line form together one class, for all have descended from one ancient but unseen parent, and, consequently, have inherited something in common.
In our discussion on embryology, we shall see why such characters are so valuable, on the view of classification tacitly including the idea of descent.
In the present book, it should perhaps be added, the word Literature is generally interpreted in the strict sense, as including only writing of permanent significance and beauty.
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1921; "Die mnemischen Empfindungen," Leipzig, l909), we will give the name of "mnemic phenomena" to those responses of an organism which, so far as hitherto observed facts are concerned, can only be brought under causal laws by including past occurrences in the history of the organism as part of the causes of the present response.
It would seem that, in man, all that makes up space perception, including the correlation of sight and touch and so on, is almost entirely acquired.
The hall is badly ventilated, and the speeches, including my own, will not be worth hearing.
The doctor, according to very accurate calculations, found that, including the articles indispensable to his journey and his apparatus, he should have to carry a weight of 4,000 pounds; therefore he had to find out what would be the ascensional force of a balloon capable of raising such a weight, and, consequently, what would be its capacity.
This apparatus had been so ingeniously combined that it did not weigh more than seven hundred pounds, even including twenty-five gallons of water in another receptacle.
THE SECOND class of powers, lodged in the general government, consists of those which regulate the intercourse with foreign nations, to wit: to make treaties; to send and receive ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations; to regulate foreign commerce, including a power to prohibit, after the year 1808, the importation of slaves, and to lay an intermediate duty of ten dollars per head, as a discouragement to such importations.
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Differently from Europe, where the tertiary formations appear to have accumulated in bays, here along hundreds of miles of coast we have one great deposit, including many tertiary shells, all apparently extinct.