infer


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in·fer

 (ĭn-fûr′)
v. in·ferred, in·fer·ring, in·fers
v.tr.
1. To conclude from evidence or by reasoning: "For many years the cerebral localization of all higher cognitive processes could be inferred only from the effects of brain injuries on the people who survived them" (Sally E. Shaywitz).
2. To involve by logical necessity; entail: "Socrates argued that a statue inferred the existence of a sculptor" (Academy).
3. (Usage Problem) To indicate indirectly; imply.
v.intr.
To draw inferences.

[Latin īnferre, to bring in, adduce : in-, in; see in-2 + ferre, to bear; see bher- in Indo-European roots.]

in·fer′a·ble adj.
in·fer′a·bly adv.
in·fer′rer n.
Usage Note: Infer is sometimes confused with imply, but the distinction careful writers make between these words is a useful one. When we say that a speaker or sentence implies something, we mean that it is conveyed or suggested without being stated outright: When the mayor said that she would not rule out a business tax increase, she implied (not inferred) that some taxes might be raised. Inference, on the other hand, is the activity performed by a reader or interpreter in drawing conclusions that are not explicit in what is said: When the mayor said that she would not rule out a tax increase, we inferred that she had consulted with new financial advisers, since her old advisers favored tax reductions.

infer

(ɪnˈfɜː)
vb (when tr, may take a clause as object) , -fers, -ferring or -ferred
1. to conclude (a state of affairs, supposition, etc) by reasoning from evidence; deduce
2. (tr) to have or lead to as a necessary or logical consequence; indicate
3. (tr) to hint or imply
[C16: from Latin inferre to bring into, from ferre to bear, carry]
inˈferable, inˈferible, inˈferrable, inˈferrible adj
inˈferably adv
inˈferrer n
Usage: The use of infer to mean imply is becoming more and more common in both speech and writing. There is nevertheless a useful distinction between the two which many people would be in favour of maintaining. To infer means 'to deduce', and is used in the construction to infer something from something: I inferred from what she said that she had not been well. To imply (sense 1) means 'to suggest, to insinuate' and is normally followed by a clause: are you implying that I was responsible for the mistake?

in•fer

(ɪnˈfɜr)

v. -ferred, -fer•ring. v.t.
1. to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence.
2. to guess; speculate; surmise.
3. (of facts, circumstances, statements, etc.) to indicate or involve as a conclusion; lead to.
4. to hint; imply; suggest.
v.i.
5. to draw a conclusion, as by reasoning.
[1520–30; < Medieval Latin inferre to imply, Latin: to bring in, advance =in- in-2 + ferre to bring, carry, bear1]
in•fer′a•ble, in•fer′ri•ble, adj.
in•fer′a•bly, adv.
in•fer′rer, n.
usage: Many usage guides condemn infer when used to mean “to hint or suggest,” as in The next speaker rejected the proposal, inferring that it was made solely to embarrass the government, holding the position that the proper word for this meaning is imply, and that to use infer for it is to lose a valuable distinction. Many speakers and writers observe this claimed distinction scrupulously. Nevertheless, from its earliest appearance in English infer has had the sense given in definition 3 above, a meaning that overlaps with the second definition of imply when the subject is a condition, circumstance, or the like that leads inevitably to a certain conclusion or point.

infer

, imply - Infer means "to deduce, reason," and imply means "to hint at, suggest."
See also related terms for hint.

imply, infer - A speaker or writer implies, a hearer or reader infers; implications are incorporated in statements, while inferences are deduced from statements. Imply means "suggest indirectly that something is true," while infer means "conclude or deduce something is true"; furthermore, to imply is to suggest or throw out a suggestion, while to infer is to include or take in a suggestion.
See also related terms for imply.

imply

infer
1. 'imply'

If you imply that something is the case, you suggest that it is the case without actually saying so.

Somehow he implied that he was the one who had done all the work.
Her tone implied that her time and her patience were limited.
2. 'infer'

If you infer that something is the case, you decide that it is the case on the basis of the information that you have.

I inferred from what she said that you have not been well.
It is only from doing experiments that cause-and-effect relationships can be inferred.

infer


Past participle: inferred
Gerund: inferring

Imperative
infer
infer
Present
I infer
you infer
he/she/it infers
we infer
you infer
they infer
Preterite
I inferred
you inferred
he/she/it inferred
we inferred
you inferred
they inferred
Present Continuous
I am inferring
you are inferring
he/she/it is inferring
we are inferring
you are inferring
they are inferring
Present Perfect
I have inferred
you have inferred
he/she/it has inferred
we have inferred
you have inferred
they have inferred
Past Continuous
I was inferring
you were inferring
he/she/it was inferring
we were inferring
you were inferring
they were inferring
Past Perfect
I had inferred
you had inferred
he/she/it had inferred
we had inferred
you had inferred
they had inferred
Future
I will infer
you will infer
he/she/it will infer
we will infer
you will infer
they will infer
Future Perfect
I will have inferred
you will have inferred
he/she/it will have inferred
we will have inferred
you will have inferred
they will have inferred
Future Continuous
I will be inferring
you will be inferring
he/she/it will be inferring
we will be inferring
you will be inferring
they will be inferring
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been inferring
you have been inferring
he/she/it has been inferring
we have been inferring
you have been inferring
they have been inferring
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been inferring
you will have been inferring
he/she/it will have been inferring
we will have been inferring
you will have been inferring
they will have been inferring
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been inferring
you had been inferring
he/she/it had been inferring
we had been inferring
you had been inferring
they had been inferring
Conditional
I would infer
you would infer
he/she/it would infer
we would infer
you would infer
they would infer
Past Conditional
I would have inferred
you would have inferred
he/she/it would have inferred
we would have inferred
you would have inferred
they would have inferred
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.infer - reason by deduction; establish by deduction
logical system, system of logic, logic - a system of reasoning
extrapolate - gain knowledge of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating
conclude, reason, reason out - decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion; "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"
surmise - infer from incomplete evidence
elicit - derive by reason; "elicit a solution"
2.infer - draw from specific cases for more general cases
conclude, reason, reason out - decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion; "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"
overgeneralise, overgeneralize - draw too general a conclusion; "It is dangerous to overgeneralize"
universalise, universalize - make universal; "This author's stories universalize old themes"
3.infer - conclude by reasoning; in logic
conclude, reason, reason out - decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion; "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"
4.infer - guess correctly; solve by guessing; "He guessed the right number of beans in the jar and won the prize"
figure out, puzzle out, solve, lick, work out, work - find the solution to (a problem or question) or understand the meaning of; "did you solve the problem?"; "Work out your problems with the boss"; "this unpleasant situation isn't going to work itself out"; "did you get it?"; "Did you get my meaning?"; "He could not work the math problem"
tell - discern or comprehend; "He could tell that she was unhappy"
5.infer - believe to be the caseinfer - believe to be the case; "I understand you have no previous experience?"
believe - accept as true; take to be true; "I believed his report"; "We didn't believe his stories from the War"; "She believes in spirits"

infer

verb deduce, understand, gather, conclude, derive, presume, conjecture, surmise, read between the lines, put two and two together I inferred from what she said that you have not been well.
Usage: The use of infer to mean imply is becoming more and more common in both speech and writing. There is nevertheless a useful distinction between the two which many people would be in favour of maintaining. To infer means 'to deduce', and is used in the construction 'to infer something from something': I inferred from what she said that she had not been well. To imply means `to suggest, to insinuate' and is normally followed by a clause: are you implying that I was responsible for the mistake?

infer

verb
1. To arrive at (a conclusion) from evidence or reasoning:
2. To draw an inference on the basis of inconclusive evidence or insufficient information:
Translations
يَسْتَدِل، يَسْتَنْتِج
usouditvyvozovat
slutte
álykta
padaryti išvadą
secināt

infer

[ɪnˈfɜːʳ] VT
1. (= deduce) → inferir, deducir (from de)
2. (= imply) → insinuar
what are you inferring?¿qué estás insinuando?

infer

[ɪnˈfɜːr] vt
(= deduce) to infer sth from sth → déduire qch de qch
to infer that ... → déduire que ...

infer

vt
(= deduce)schließen, folgern (from aus); nothing can be inferred from thisdaraus kann man nichts schließen or folgern
(= imply)andeuten, zu verstehen geben

infer

[ɪnˈfɜːʳ] vt to infer (from)dedurre (da)

infer

(inˈfəː) past tense, past participle inˈferred verb
to judge (from facts or evidence). I inferred from your silence that you were angry.
ˈinference noun
References in classic literature ?
On the other hand, a penalty which, in our days, would infer a degree of mocking infamy and ridicule, might then be invested with almost as stern a dignity as the punishment of death itself.
You see, you must not infer, from what I have told you, that Alfred is what is called a hard master; for he isn't.
Lucy directly drew her work table near her and reseated herself with an alacrity and cheerfulness which seemed to infer that she could taste no greater delight than in making a filigree basket for a spoilt child.
I caught scraps of their conversation, from which I was able only too distinctly to infer the main subject discussed.
In the meantime I am glad to infer, from the absence of a medical attendant in the house, that Miss Bygrave's illness is much less serious than I had supposed it to be when I came here.
I infer," glancing at his hands again, "in the resumption of some old pursuit connected with the shock?
What else was it possible to infer from what you said, you unkind creature, when you know as well as I do, that on his account only last quarter I wouldn't buy myself a new parasol, though that old green one is frayed the whole way up, and the fringe is perfectly mangy?