7) However, while the conceptual history of the term "intelligentsia" has been a fruitful topic of research in the context of the Russian and especially the Polish intelligentsias, (8) a similar study in the context of Russia's Muslims has not yet been undertaken.
Most important, it highlights how Muslim intellectuals modeled themselves after the Russian, Polish, and other intelligentsias in conceiving of themselves as an intelligentsia, partly due to Gasprinskiy's notable role in translating Russian conceptions of the intelligentsia into the Russian Muslim context.
They assumed the existence of spontaneously formed intelligentsias (Polish and others), each with a self-appointed mission to identify and articulate the national identity and to speak to the foreign colonial authorities on behalf of their own people, victims of political aggression, in order to lead them in the modernization and transformation of their society.
Of all the fragments that had once made up the lands of the Rzeczpospolita, it was here that the intelligentsia had the greatest opportunity to define the Polish national identity and contribute to the modernization of its society.
coffee is roasted in small batches by trained artisan roasters.
His case is that at the moment of cultural contact Native American intelligentsias
had cognitive procedures for the commodification of memories more than adequate for their needs.
They stake out two kinds of cultural authority: one is a social critique typical of postindustrial intelligentsias
, and the other is their native origin (to which they might refer, across a divide).
Benjamin Tromly's Making the Soviet Intelligentsia
not only questions the metaphor of the Thaw as an index of the intelligentsias
decade-long search for freedom but boldly targets its elitism, which "universalizes a reading of Soviet history that was not shared by all intellectuals, let alone Soviet society as a whole" (20).
29) Gary Hamburg suggested that the history of the Russian intelligentsia
is best understood as a history of intelligentsias
, which were perceived and defined differently over time.
In the Georgian context, Jughashvili's firm defense of the intelligentsias
interest in the party was more remarkable.
Words, Deeds, and Values: The Intelligentsias
in Russia and Poland during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Lund: Department of East and Central European Studies, Lund University, 2005); Stuart Finkel, On the Ideological Front: The Russian Intelligentsia
and the Making of the Soviet Public Sphere (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007); John Randolph, The House in the Garden: The Bakunin Family and the Romance of Russian Idealism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007); and Nathaniel Knight, "Was the Intelligentsia
Part of the Nation?
Benedict Anderson also assigns a privileged place to intelligentsias
whose "pilgrimages" in the postcolonial contact form the milieu out of which the nation can begin to emerge as an "imagined community": Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991), 116.