Recordings from interneurons
confirmed that HAL-induced GABA release must be from their terminals, as no change was detected in the resting membrane potential, input resistance, firing threshold or spike accommodation of interneurons
bathed in HAL.
Objective: "GABAergic interneurons
are known to play a central role in sensory processing, circuit plasticity in the developing cortex and several neurological disorders.
Goulding and his team had previously implicated one class of interneuron
, the V1 interneurons
, as being a likely key component of the flexor-extensor circuitry.
integrate into the brain and provide controlled inhibition to balance the activity of nerve circuits.
Increased numbers of hippocampal interneurons
in CAM [alpha]1A mice compared to normal mice were also observed.
When air currents tickle these hairs, neurons at the bases of the hair follicles send out signals that are funneled through a narrow band of neurons, or ganglion, on the cricket's abdomen to a cluster of primary sensory interneurons
, which relay the signal to the insect's higher nervous system.
Neuroprotectors play a key role in the health of the optic system from the optic nerve through the retinal interneurons
up to the photoreceptors; hence, the observed neurotrophic effects of electrical stimulation may explain why ScyFIX's treatment has shown positive efficacy for diseases of the optic nerve and retinal ganglia (Glaucoma) as well as maladies of the photoreceptors (Age-Related Macular Degeneration) in field use.
In the cerebral cortex, excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons
constitute the main cellular elements of neuronal circuits.
This stream of information from the brain reaches interneurons
in the spinal cord, which then transmit the commands via further circuits to motor neurons innervating muscles.
In the current study, the scientists directed the stem cells into becoming cortical interneurons
-- a class of brain cells that, by releasing the neurotransmitter GABA, controls electrical firing in brain circuits.
1]AR agonists produced a concentration-dependent increase in action potential frequency in hippocampal interneurons
in normal and [[alpha].
Says invertebrate biologist Ronald Calabrese of Emory University in Atlanta, "Finding these critical interneurons
[such as the Tr1 cells] is the most difficult thing.