Research areas include, but are not limited to, the effects of natural selection or other evolutionary processes on populations, communities, or ecosystems; the effects of interspecific
interactions that vary over time and space; population or community dynamics for organisms that have extended life spans and long turnover times; feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes; pools of materials such as nutrients in soils that turn over at intermediate to longer time scales; and external forcing functions such as climatic cycles that operate over long return intervals.
Furthermore, intraspecific and interspecific
interactions among individuals of different species can impact population densities and the extent and spatial patterning of territories or home ranges (Law and Watkinson 1989, Adams 2001, Farwell and Marzluff 2013).
comparisons of ligament resilience were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparisons.
Therefore, we examined the interspecific
relationships between both larval parasitoid species, to determine possible multiparasitism, i.
crosses (Pandey, 1962).
The average intra- and inter-specific distances were calculated to evaluate the intraspecifc variation and interspecific
divergence (Meyer and Paulay 2005; Meier et al.
The results reveal a cognitive mechanism by which largebrained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific
competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food.
The scissor-tailed flycatcher (Fitch, 1950; Fitzpatrick, 1980; Regosin and Pruett-Jones, 1983) and the blue jay (Atkins, 1991; Gill, 2007; Saenz and Pierce, 2009) are aggressive species and interspecific
interactions are not unknown.
Under the space-developmental structure of the population we understand the hierarchical system of distribution areas (images, mosaics) for developmental groups, the specificity of which is determined by generative plants which reached the morphological realization of the species life-forms, intraspecific and interspecific
relations and abiotic environmental conditions.
specialized plants that attract and interact with ants) have primarily focused on interspecific
evaluations of EFN chemistry, the Coastal Coral tree offers an opportunity to contrast intraspecific nectar chemistry with differing evolutionary and ecological functions.
These results suggest a temporal partitioning in the recruitment of the specialist and generalist parasitoids to herbivore-damaged cotton plants, and may have potential ramifications for interspecific
competition between parasitoids.
communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.