Purpose: Therefore, we analysed whether the active principles that were recently isolated and found to inhibit inflammatory responses specifically inhibit growth of NPM/ALK+ ALCL, leukaemia and breast cancer cells, but not of normal cells, and the intravasation
through the lymphendothelial barrier.
Objective: Poor prognosis of cancer results from two central progression events, (i) the intravasation
of cancer cells into blood vessels which leads to metastasis to distant organs and ultimately lethal tumor overload and (ii) cancer cell survival and adaptation to metabolic stress which causes resistance to anti-cancer therapy and limits life expectancy.
Pulmonary and cerebral embolism can result from inadvertent intravascular injection or intravasation
The AAGL's Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hysteroscopic Distending Media lists an intravasation
safety limit of 2,500 cc for isotonic solution, compared with a maximum limit of 1,000 cc when using hypotonic solutions (J.
3) Further, dynamic studies have shown an interaction between tumor cells and macrophages in the process of intravasation
of tumor cells into vessels.
These steps include local invasion, intravasation
of cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system, survival of these cells within the blood or lymphatic system, evasion of the immune system, arrest at a secondary site distant from the site of origin, extravasation, initiation of either intra- or extravascular growth within this secondary site, and, finally, maintenance of growth leading to the formation of overt, vascularized, clinically detectable metastases (23).
The cancer metastasis process is a highly coordinated step-wise process that occurs through a complex series of interactions with the host tissue, including detachment of cells from the primary tumor, local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM), intravasation
through the basement membrane of capillary and lymphatic vessels, eventually, results in infiltration and penetration of normal tissue by cancer cells (Bradbury et al.
Because diagnostic procedures are fairly short, the likelihood of fluid intravasation
at high volumes is low, however.