Given that CROSS is based on ionicity
of the involved cations, it would appear appropriate that coefficients of dispersibility could be used to further inform clay colloidal behaviour in a soil system and derive an equation on this basis.
Contrast was subdivided on the basis of ionicity
into ionic and nonionic; osmolarity into high osmolal contrast media (HOCM) and low osmolal contrast media (LOCM); structure into monomer and dimer.
The molecular structure, whether cyclic or linear, and the ionicity
determine the stability of Gd chelates.
In recent years, various experimental and theoretical works have been done to generalize the trends in the ionicity
Table 1 Original four FDA groupings FDA Water content Ionicity
Example group I Low (<50%) Non-ionic The original SofLens 38 II High (>50%) Non-ionic Biotrue ONEday III Low (<50%) Ionic IV High (>50%) Ionic 1day Acuvue Moist Table 2 The moduli of common hydrogel and SiHy lenses Lens Material Hydrogel or SiHy Modulus Biotrue ONEday Nesofilcon A Group II hydrogel 0.
Topics of invited papers include the tight distribution of dielectric characteristics of HfSiON in metal gate devices, dynamical properties of orthorhombic phases of Group IVb transition metal oxides, interface characterization in nanoelectronics, theoretical studies on Fermi level pining of Hf-based high-k gate stacks based on thermodynamics, the role of ionicity
in defect formation in Hf-based dielectrics, challenges in gate stack etching and cleaning, crystalline rare-earth oxides as high-k materials for future CMOS technologies, high-k characterization by RFCV, uses for germanium, and the essence of VFB shifts in high-k gate stacks.
Based on differences in structure, ionicity
, osmolality and viscosity, contrast media are categorized under either monomers or dimmers, ionic or non-ionic, low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) or high osmolar contrast media (HOCM) and low viscous contrast media (LVCM) or high viscous contrast media (HVCM).
is the characteristic of a molecule to break up into a cation and an anion, resulting in more molecules per kilogram of water and thus increasing osmolality.
Marchuk and Rengasamy (2011), on the premise that water stability of soil aggregates depends on the degree of ionicity
of clay-cation bonding, derived the ionicity
indices of monovalent and divalent cations in relation to their bonding with clay particles and showed that these indices dictate clay behaviour in aqueous suspensions.
Generic name Iodine content (mg/mL) HOCM Ionic monomer Diatrizoate 300-370 HOCM Ionic monomer Metrizoate 280-370 HOCM Ionic monomer Iothalamate 141-480 LOCM Ionic dimer Ioxaglate 280-320 LOCM Nonionic monomer Iohexol 140-350 LOCM Nonionic monomer Iopamidol 150-370 LOCM Nonionic monomer Iopromide 150-400 LOCM Nonionic monomer Iopentol 150-350 LOCM Nonionic monomer Iomeprol 150-400 IOCM Nonionic dimer Iodixanol 270-320 IOCM Nonionic dimer Iotrolan 240-300 Type Osmolality Viscosity at Viscosity at 20-25[degrees] 37[degrees]C C (mPa x S) (mPa x S) HOCM 1500-2000 3.
Therefore, Marchuk and Rengasamy (2011) concluded that the degree of ionicity
or covalency of a cation will reflect the degree of covalent or ionic character of clay-cation bonds.
Recently, Marchuk and Rengasamy (2011), on the basis that the degree of ionicity
in a clay-cation bond affects clay dispersion, derived the ionicity
indices for various cations bonded to clay.