OPPORTUNITIES (LET'S MAKE LOTS OF MONEY) - PET SHOP BOYS WRITTEN as a satire of Thatcherism and its embodiment in conspicuous consumption and yuppies in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, the song's indirect attack on its subject matter has come to exemplify the Pet Shop Boys as ironists
But probably not, since except for a few ironists
like Iztok Osojnik and Andrej Blatnik and some neo-fantasists like Miroslav Slana, humor does not seem to be a dominant strain in Slovenian literature--perhaps because, in most of its history, not many funny things were going on.
According to Rorty ironists
strive to criticise vocabularies that are considered final, (15) because they constantly doubt the validity of their own final vocabularies (1989:73).
As Schlegel had suggested ironists
do, Blackwood's welcomed the confusion and controversy it stirred.
In this way, Rorty's very articulation itself of pragmatism is merely a useful way of speaking that serves his desired end of creating more secular, liberal ironists
who prefer living aesthetically experimental lives to seeking the true and the good.
Where postmodern and other ironists
have read Part 4 as wholly farcical, Loeb is careful to point out that, on his reading, Part 4 maintains its dignity by depicting Zarathustra's 'final and essential advance on the way to complete fulfillment' of his destiny (97).
In fact, mirroring the ways of their invented father in heaven, some of my blood relatives have become such inadvertent ironists
, as they, at this moment, squat in Palestine, bristling with misplaced rage, manic with delusional entitlement, and, on the whole, casting a curse upon future generations that will poison their hearts and cascade through the generations with a terrible symmetry.
So Rorty is a self-described liberal ironist
: liberal because 'liberals are people who think that cruelty is the worst thing we do'; (8) and ironist
know that their 'final vocabulary' is contingent and not dictated by the nature of the world or by a human essence.
Whereas his early works are associated with those of his fellow ironists
Martin Kippenberger and Werner Buttner, as well as his former teacher in Hamburg, Sigmar Polke, the artist's recent paintings are more cosmopolitan in association, and in this exhibition most readily evoke the work of Christopher Wool, Cy Twombly, and Bernard Frize.
There is not space here to give detailed attention to the chapters on Fay Weldon, Athol Fugard, Mario Vargas Llosa, Richard Rorty and his ironists
, and Ian McEwan's Saturday, though Foley's discussion in these chapters is interesting and adds evidence to his claim concerning the near-global preoccupation of writers with individual freedom.
What is important for Rorty is whether we are ironists
or metaphysicians with respect to our final vocabulary.
Eschewing metaphor for the ghastly comedy of the surface while attacking the social and literary elite, both Parra and Emar are levelers and ironists
who became major figures despite themselves.