The ninth century, a time of cultural renewal in the Carolingian, Byzantine and Abbasid empires, possesses the remarkable characteristic which ensures commensurability that the same texts, namely the writings of Aristotelian logic (mainly Porphyry s Isagoge
and Aristotle s Categories) were read and commented upon in Latin, Greek, Syriac and Arabic alike.
See also Michael Marmura, "Avicenna's Chapter on Universais in the Isagoge
of his Shifa'," in Islam: Past Influence and Present Challenge, ed.
It should be noted that Boethius's first commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge
does indicate the intimate relationship between philosophy and the study of divinity as the love and pursuit of wisdom.
This, then, is the problem of universals that Boethius addressed in his second commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge
, or introduction to Aristotle's Categories.
Porphyry's peculiar mission of rescuing the legacy of Aristotle for posterity is traditionally exemplified by his Isagoge
, which became in the translation of Boethius a standard textbook in the Middle Ages, but to make sense of his contribution from the viewpoint of Christianity we have to look back at the differences between Plato and Aristotle sketched above.
in artem testudinariam: Augsburg, 1607 sic.
De fato, foi sob a influencia de Aristoteles que a Escolastica adotou uma posicao Realista moderada, por meio da sintese de Sao Tomas e dos escritos de Pedro Abelardo, o qual aprofundou as questoes propostas por Porfirio, no Isagoge
21) (After Porphyry's Isagoge
, the ability to laugh became the stock example.
The Summulae is a vast commentary on Aristotle's Organon supplemented with Porphyry's Isagoge
Thus, in his Isagoge
, Porphyry affirms that "genus" indicates a collection of individuals acting in a certain way among themselves and in relation to one being only.
Before the age of sixteen he had read Porphyry's Isagoge
, Euclid's Elements, and Ptolemy's Almagest, and had studied Indian arithmetic and Islamic law.
16) Indeed, his project is only intelligible within the limits of this Aristotelian corpus of texts and Porphyry's Isagoge
(all in Boethius' translations) alongside Boethius' own commentaries.