under art 1, Maori leaders gave the Queen 'te Kawanatanga
The Maori-language version, which contains the most signatures (more than 500 Maori chiefs), records that Maori would retain tino rangatiratanga (sovereignty) over their lands and treasures, but otherwise gave kawanatanga
(governance) rights to the British Crown.
mana, but kawanatanga
, a transliteration of 'governorship' improvised by the missionaries, which to the Maori might not have meant more than the coming of the first governor.
This paper explores some pre-1918 (2) examples of what can be found in standard government archives, in this case the archives of the New Zealand government as held at Archives New Zealand, Te Rua Mahara o te Kawanatanga
, in Wellington.
38) Archives New Zealand/Te Rua Mahara o te Kawanatanga
Christchurch Regional Office, 'Captain Simeon to Committee--list of books belonging to the Canterbury Association--25/09/1852 (R21007184)', Archives Reference: CH290, box 138, record no 6/7 1015, p.
Ka mau mai ahau aku hiahia, aku mahi kawanatanga
hoki--i roto i te NZNO me te rangai hauora hoki.
If, as Michael King wrote, Maori at Waitangi truly did not equate kawanatanga
with sovereignty, then what are we to make of the comments of Ngapuhi's Rewa at Waitangi in 1840, quoted here directly from King's own book:
Na e hoa ma e nga Iwi Maori e noho nei i Aotearoa me te Waipounamu, He aumihi tonu kei roto i ahau mo koutou kei whakaaro mai ra, to tatou hoa te Kawanatanga
, e korero atu ana ahau kia ia, kaore.
1998, Te Mana Te Kawanatanga
: the Politics of Maaori Self-Determination.
A quote from Professor Mason Durie in Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga
is relevant here: "Self-governance at local or national levels requires a level of organisation which incorporates both customary Maori practices and the application of democratic principles.
Problems of translation focus most significantly, but not exclusively, on the meaning of the transliteration kawanatanga
, kawana for governorship, governor), to convey what the Maori signatories are supposed to have ceded.
Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga
, The Politics of Maori Self-Determination.