In order to assess the adequacy of measurement properties, criteria for thresholds given by Schreiber, Stage, King, Nora and Barlow (2006), Cortina (1993), Bagozzi and Yi, (1988), Fornell and Larker
(1981) and Hair, Black, Babin and Anderson (2010) were followed.
Para evaluar la validez convergente, Fornell & Larker
(1981) sugieren el uso de la varianza media extraida (AVE).
A consistencia interna do instrumento foi avaliada pelo alfa de Cronbach (MESSICKS, 1995) e pela fiabilidade composita (FORNELL; LARKER
In assessing the discriminant validity, we used the criterion of Fornell and Larker
(1981), in which it is considered appropriate when the square root of the average variance extracted (AVE) exceeds the shared correlation of the construct with the rest of the measurement model.
The initial measurement model evidenced lower loadings for two observed indicators for the empowerment construct which contributed to a variance extracted level that was below recommended cutoffs (Fornell & Larker
Additionally, in terms of discriminant validity, the AVE of each latent variable should be higher than that latent variable's highest squared correlation with the other latent variables (Fornell and Larker
1981), and an indicator's loading should be higher than all of its cross-loadings (Chin 1998; Hair et al.
70 (Fornell and Larker
, 1981; Nunnally, 1978), confirming the reliability of the scales (Barclay, Higgins, and Thompson, 1995; Fornell and Larker
postseason Report (2011)); Larker
, supra note 38 ("[T]he practice of 'say on pay' increases the influence of third-party proxy advisory firms that provide recommendations to institutional investors on how they should vote items on the annual proxy over corporate policy.
Further, this study tested discriminant validity (DV) for independence of each dimension (Fornell & Larker
05; AGFI = 0,85; CFi = 0,96; RMsEA = 0,05) y todos los items son significativos (p < 0,001), lo que garantiza la validez convergente del instrumento de medida (Fornell & larker
Other studies provide evidence that CEOs exercise substantial influence over the executive compensation process resulting in wealth transfer from shareholders to managers (Core, Holthausen, and Larker
, 1999; Hartzell and Starks, 2003; Bebchuk and Fried, 2004).
Ittner and Larker
(1998) find that customer satisfaction scores are value relevant after controlling for book value of assets and liabilities and that the value relevance of customer satisfaction varies significantly across industries.