Este estudio ha sido posible gracias a la financiacion procedente del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia (proyecto PETRI No: PTR1995-0412-OP) y del Proyecto LEXIGRAM
The teaching goal was to establish relations between lexigram
comparisons with photograph samples via exclusion of Mayer-Johnson symbols.
So, while apes may not naturally use symbolic function for language, they do so in settings where they are trained to communicate through a device called a Lexigram
In these tests, spoken words are presented through headphones, and Kanzi is requested to indicate the real object, the photo, or the lexigram
that the word represents.
Will Schive founded the lexigram
Web site goodworksonearth.
She is able to name items by selecting a corresponding lexigram
when presented with a sample stimulus.
Given the presentation of a sample visual food, selection of the corresponding lexigram
from an array of lexigrams
produced a taste of that food (cf.
Researchers then dutifully documented that chimps can interpret abstract lexigrams
on keyboards and arrange them in meaningful sequences.
They include the composition of the lexigrams
possibly leading to faulty stimulus control, the order of testing phases, the possibility that repeated testing may have led to delayed emergence, and the possibility of inadvertent cueing due to the use of table top training methods conducted by the experimenter.
Instructors could include others, such as pictograms SYMS and OAKLAN, PREMACK cards, lexigrams
and several SIGSYM systems.
Over the years, several studies have used a stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach simple reading skills (Sidman, Cresson, & Willson-Morris, 1974) as well as a variety of other practical skills to individuals with disabilities including manual signing (Osborne & Gatch, 1989; VanBiervliet, 1977); pre-arithmetic skills (Gast, Vanbiervliet, & Spradlin, 1979); spelling (Stromer & Mackay, 1992, 1993; Mackay, 1985); name-face matching (Cowley, Green, & Braunling-McMorrow, 1992); shopping skills (Taylor & O'Reilly, 2000); monetary skills (McDonagh, McIlvane, & Stoddard, 1984); relations among objects, spoken words, and lexigrams
(Brady & McLean, 2000); and relations among consonants, spoken words, and pictures (Carr et al.
A chimpanzee's (Pan troglodytes) long-term retention of lexigrams