loan translation

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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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loan translation

n.
A form of borrowing from one language to another whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the borrowing language. English superman, for example, is a loan translation from German Übermensch. Also called calque.

loan translation

n
(Linguistics) the adoption by one language of a phrase or compound word whose components are literal translations of the components of a corresponding phrase or compound in a foreign language: English "superman" is a loan translation from German "Übermensch.". Also called: calque

loan′ transla`tion


n.
1. a compound word or expression formed by translation of each of the elements of a compound from another language, as gospel (Old English gōdspell) from Greek euangélion “good news”.
2. the process whereby such a compound is formed.

loan translation

A word or phrase created in a language by translating a word or phrase in another language, for example superman” from the German “übermensch.”
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loan translation - an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"
locution, saying, expression - a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations; "pardon the expression"
Translations
tükörfordítás
lánsþýðing
翻訳借用
References in periodicals archive ?
Many Slavic compounds are clearly loan translations or calques.
theonym and oronym: a god or peak "with three heads"), (8) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "trident" (an instrument with "three teeth", clearly a loan translation from Greek).
The new entries include borrowings from Tagalog, hybrid expressions, derivations, compounds, blends and clippings, initialisms, loan translations, conversions from one part of speech to another, and English words used in the Philippines given complete changes in meanings.
The following chapter, by Ramon Marti Solano, "Multi-word Loan Translations and Semantic Borrowings from English in French Journalistic Discourse', includes a comparison of the phraseological units found in Frantext, the largest French corpus, and in a corpus consisting of the weekly issues of Le Nouvel Observateur (lno) over a ten-year period, compiled by the author.
Loan translations and semantic extensions are used extensively as a way of using the language's own resources rather than borrowing.
A sampling of topics includes loan translations from Greek in Christian Middle Arabic texts, dialects before and after classical Arabic, vocalism in modern Moroccan Arabic dialicts, and a morphological study of the plural in Arabic.
Credit unions operating in California must provide written mortgage loan translations in five languages, according to a release from the state's Department of Financial Institutions.
3) There are also loan translations or caiques, by which the idea expressed in the Chinese language is conveyed more or less literally with English words.
This paper illustrates increases in the use of English in political speeches in post-Suharto Indonesia by analyzing the phonological, morphological, and syntactic assimilation of loanwords (linguistic borrowing), as well as hybridization and code switching, and phenomena such as doubling and loan translations.
This study also suggests that Old Persian influenced the book of Daniel and Imperial Aramaic in more ways than hitherto estimated, especially in regard to syntax and loan translations.