In addition, the reviews show that for reducing one mg/dl of the existing cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein
in plasma, the rate of death caused by atherosclerotic heart disease reduces about 2% .
Hyperlipidemia, with high low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol and triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL in men and <45 mg/dL in women), is a known major cardiovascular risk factor.
Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 Levels: a cohort study.
Most health warnings involve low-density lipoprotein
(LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, which helps form hard deposits in the arteries called atherosclerotic plaques.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (Bronx, NY) has patented methods of using of the sizes and levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein
(LDL) particles, the -641 allele of the promoter of the gene encoding apolipoprotein C-3 (APOC-3), the 405 allele of the gene encoding cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), adiponectin, CETP and APOC-3, for determining and increasing an individual's likelihood of longevity and of retaining cognitive function during aging, and for determining and decreasing an individual's likelihood of developing a cardiovascular-, metabolic- or age-related disease.
The 6,595 participants averaged 55 years old, and all had elevated blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein
(LDL), the bad cholesterol.
Contrary to the accepted hypothesis positing downregulation of low-density lipoprotein
receptor (LDLR) in humans, expression of the human APOE4 isoform combined with increased LDLR was harmful in genetically modified mice when red a high-fat Western diet, predicting important interactions between genotype/phenotype and exposure.
When drugs become necessary, we recommend as initial therapy pravastatin or atorvastatin for elevated low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol levels and gemfibrozil or fenofibrate when triglyceride concentrations exceed 500 mg/dL.
At the end of the study, the walnut group had significantly lower total cholesterol as well as lower low-density lipoprotein
levels (LDL, the bad cholesterol) as compared to the regular Mediterranean diet.
The authors of the recent brief article (1) questioning the validity of the Friedewald formula for the calculation of low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) failed to answer an important question: Where is all the cholesterol?
However, levels of low-density lipoprotein
- or LDL, the ``bad'' cholesterol - did rise if the coffee was boiled, the study says.
Measurement of low-density lipoprotein
particle size by high-performance gel-filtration chromatography.