Symptoms generally occur when weakness or dysfunction in the lower esophageal sphincter
muscle allows stomach contents to flow backward into the esophagus causing esophageal inflammation and damage.
The GEJ is an anatomically complex region consisting of the intrinsic lower esophageal sphincter
(LES), including an intrabdominal portion, the crural diaphragm, the gastric sling fibers, and the phrenoesophageal ligament, (3) forming the acute angle of His.
In the patients with severe hiatal hernias, the entire lower esophageal sphincter
is damaged to various extents and this landmark is also affected.
The TIF procedure corrects the source of the problem by repairing the faulty lower esophageal sphincter
in order to keep stomach acid where it belongs," says Dr.
It is unclear if the pathophysiology of GERD in patients with Rett syndrome can simply be explained through transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter
Lower esophageal sphincter
pressure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and posture and time patterns.
For example, smoking causes the lower esophageal sphincter
to relax, allowing stomach contents to wash back up into the esophagus and trigger GERD symptoms.
Transient inappropriate relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
is the predominant mechanism in the majority of patients with mild to moderate disease.
Using combined manometry/pH/MII measurements, Sifrim and others (2001a) showed that transient lower esophageal sphincter
relaxations (TLESRs) were the most common motor event underlying non-acid reflux; TLESRs accounted for 80% of non-acid GER in normal subjects and 55% of non-acid GER in symptomatic subjects.
One reason gastric reflux occurs in runners is the transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
secondary to the swallowing of air.
In GERD, the lower esophageal sphincter
(LES) at the top of the stomach does not completely close, allowing the contents of the stomach to reflux, or back up, into the esophagus.
This has been used successfully for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter
, noted Dr.