mathematics


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mathematics

math·e·mat·ics

 (măth′ə-măt′ĭks)
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols.

[From Middle English mathematik, from Old French mathematique, from Latin mathēmatica, from Greek mathēmatikē (tekhnē), mathematical (science), feminine of mathēmatikos, mathematical; see mathematical.]

mathematics

(ˌmæθəˈmætɪks; ˌmæθˈmæt-)
n
1. (Mathematics) (functioning as singular) a group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry, and calculus, concerned with the study of number, quantity, shape, and space and their interrelationships by using a specialized notation
2. (Mathematics) (functioning as singular or plural) mathematical operations and processes involved in the solution of a problem or study of some scientific field
[C14: mathematik (n), via Latin from Greek (adj), from mathēma a science, mathēmatikos (adj); related to manthanein to learn]

math•e•mat•ics

(ˌmæθ əˈmæt ɪks)

n.
1. (used with a sing. v.) the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically.
2. (used with a sing. or pl. v.) mathematical procedures, operations, or properties.
[1350–1400; < Latin < Greek mathēmatikḕ (téchnē) scientific (craft) =mathēmat- lesson, learning + -ikē, -ic; see -ics]

math·e·mat·ics

(măth′ə-măt′ĭks)
The study of the measurement, relationships, and properties of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and calculus are branches of mathematics.

Mathematics

See also logic;numbers

the branch of mathematics that treats the representation and manip-ulation of relationships among numbers, values, vectors, etc. — algebraic, adj.
1. the Arabic system of numbering.
2. the method of computation with the Arabic flgures 1 through 9, plus the zero; arithmetic.
3. the rule for solving a specific kind of arithmetic problem, as finding an average; algorithm. — algorist, n. — algorismic, adj.
any methodology for solving a certain kind of problem.
the construction of a proportion.
1. the calculation of the probable extent of human lifespans.
2. the application to biology of mathematical and statistical theory and methods. — biometric, biometrical, adj.
a branch of mathematics that treats the measurement of changing quantities, determining rates of change (differential calculus) and quantities under changing conditions (integral calculus).
the branch of applied mathematics that studies the measurement and shape and area of large tracts, the exact position of geographical points, and the curvature, shape, and dimensions of the earth. Also called geodetics. — geodesist, n. — geodetic, geodetical, adj.
the branch of mathematics that treats the measurement, relationship, and properties of points, lines, angles, and flgures in space. — geometer, geometrician, n. — geometric, geometrical, adj.
the study of flgures that have perimeters of equal length. — isoperimetrical, isoperimetral, adj.
a form of divination involving logarithms.
Rare. the art or science of calculation or arithmetic.
the systematic study of magnitude, quantitites, and their relationships as expressed symbolically in the form of numerals and forms. — mathematician, n. — mathematic, mathematical, adj.
the logical analysis of the fundamental concepts of mathematics, as function, number, etc. — metamathematician, n. — metamathematical, adj.
the state or quality of being right-angled or perpendicular. — orthogonal, adj.
the quality of being parallel.
1. Rare. a love of learning.
2. a love of mathematics. — philomath, n. — philomathic, philomathical, philomathean, adj.
the geometry and measurement of plane surfaces. — planimeter, n. — planimetric, planimetrical, adj.
a mathematical expression having the quality of two or more terms.
Rare. a kind of geometrical proposition of ancient Greek mathematics arising during the investigation of some other proposition either as a corollary or as a condition that will render a certain problem indeterminate. — porismatic, adj.
the doctrines and theories of Pythagoras, ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician, and the Pythagoreans, especially number relationships in music theory, acoustics, astronomy, and geometry (the Pythagorean theorem for right triangles), a belief in metempsychosis, and mysticism based on numbers. — Pythagorean, n., adj. — Pythagorist, n.
the branch of algebra that deals with equations containing variables of the second power, i.e. squared, but no higher.
the state of having a roughly spherical shape. Also called spheroidism, spheroidity.
Rare. a treatise on statistics.
a person who discovers or formulates a mathematical theorem. — theorematic, adj.
a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of geometrical forms that remain invariant under certain transformations, as bending or stretching. — topologist, n. — topologic, topological, adj.
the branch of mathematics that treats the measurement of and relationships between the sides and angles of plane triangles and the solid figures derived from them. — trigonometric, trigonometrical, adj.

mathematics

mathsmath

Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantities, and shapes. When mathematics is taught as a subject at school, it is usually called maths in British English, and math in American English.

Maths is my best subject at school.
Julio teaches math at a middle school.

Be Careful!
Mathematics, maths, and math are uncountable nouns and are used with a singular verb. Don't say, for example, 'Maths are my best subject'.

When you are referring to a science rather than a school subject, use mathematics.

According to the laws of mathematics, this is not possible.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.mathematics - a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangementmathematics - a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
rounding, rounding error - (mathematics) a miscalculation that results from rounding off numbers to a convenient number of decimals; "the error in the calculation was attributable to rounding"; "taxes are rounded off to the nearest dollar but the rounding error is surprisingly small"
truncation error - (mathematics) a miscalculation that results from cutting off a numerical calculation before it is finished
mathematical operation, mathematical process, operation - (mathematics) calculation by mathematical methods; "the problems at the end of the chapter demonstrated the mathematical processes involved in the derivation"; "they were learning the basic operations of arithmetic"
rationalisation, rationalization - (mathematics) the simplification of an expression or equation by eliminating radicals without changing the value of the expression or the roots of the equation
invariance - the nature of a quantity or property or function that remains unchanged when a given transformation is applied to it; "the invariance of the configuration under translation"
accuracy - (mathematics) the number of significant figures given in a number; "the atomic clock enabled scientists to measure time with much greater accuracy"
symmetricalness, symmetry, correspondence, balance - (mathematics) an attribute of a shape or relation; exact reflection of form on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane
asymmetry, dissymmetry, imbalance - (mathematics) a lack of symmetry
factoring, factorisation, factorization - (mathematics) the resolution of an entity into factors such that when multiplied together they give the original entity
extrapolation - (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values
interpolation - (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function between the values already known
formula, rule - (mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems; "he determined the upper bound with Descartes' rule of signs"; "he gave us a general formula for attacking polynomials"
recursion - (mathematics) an expression such that each term is generated by repeating a particular mathematical operation
invariant - a feature (quantity or property or function) that remains unchanged when a particular transformation is applied to it
multinomial, polynomial - a mathematical function that is the sum of a number of terms
series - (mathematics) the sum of a finite or infinite sequence of expressions
infinitesimal - (mathematics) a variable that has zero as its limit
fractal - (mathematics) a geometric pattern that is repeated at every scale and so cannot be represented by classical geometry
science, scientific discipline - a particular branch of scientific knowledge; "the science of genetics"
pure mathematics - the branches of mathematics that study and develop the principles of mathematics for their own sake rather than for their immediate usefulness
arithmetic - the branch of pure mathematics dealing with the theory of numerical calculations
geometry - the pure mathematics of points and lines and curves and surfaces
affine geometry - the geometry of affine transformations
elementary geometry, Euclidean geometry, parabolic geometry - (mathematics) geometry based on Euclid's axioms
Euclidean axiom, Euclid's axiom, Euclid's postulate - (mathematics) any of five axioms that are generally recognized as the basis for Euclidean geometry
fractal geometry - (mathematics) the geometry of fractals; "Benoit Mandelbrot pioneered fractal geometry"
non-Euclidean geometry - (mathematics) geometry based on axioms different from Euclid's; "non-Euclidean geometries discard or replace one or more of the Euclidean axioms"
hyperbolic geometry - (mathematics) a non-Euclidean geometry in which the parallel axiom is replaced by the assumption that through any point in a plane there are two or more lines that do not intersect a given line in the plane; "Karl Gauss pioneered hyperbolic geometry"
elliptic geometry, Riemannian geometry - (mathematics) a non-Euclidean geometry that regards space as like a sphere and a line as like a great circle; "Bernhard Riemann pioneered elliptic geometry"
numerical analysis - (mathematics) the branch of mathematics that studies algorithms for approximating solutions to problems in the infinitesimal calculus
spherical geometry - (mathematics) the geometry of figures on the surface of a sphere
spherical trigonometry - (mathematics) the trigonometry of spherical triangles
analytic geometry, analytical geometry, coordinate geometry - the use of algebra to study geometric properties; operates on symbols defined in a coordinate system
plane geometry - the geometry of 2-dimensional figures
solid geometry - the geometry of 3-dimensional space

mathematics

noun
Quotations
"As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality" [Albert Einstein]
"I have often admired the mystical way of Pythagoras, and the secret magic of numbers" [Thomas Browne Religio Medici]
"Beauty is the first test; there is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics" [Godfrey Harold Hardy A Mathematician's Apology]

Mathematics

Branches of mathematics  algebra, analysis, analytical geometry or coordinate geometry, applied mathematics, arithmetic, Boolean algebra, calculus, chaos geometry, conics, differential calculus, Euclidean geometry, game theory, geometry, group theory, integral calculus, nomography, non-Euclidean geometry, number theory, numerical analysis, probability theory, pure mathematics, set theory, statistics, topology, trigonometry
Mathematical terms  acute angle, addition, algorithm or algorism, angle, arc, area, average, axis, base, binary, binomial, cardinal number, Cartesian coordinates, chord, circle, circumference, closed set, coefficient, common denominator, common factor, complex number, concentric, cone, constant, coordinate or co-ordinate, cosecant, cosine, cotangent, cube, cube root, cuboid, curve, cusp, cylinder, decagon, decimal, denary, denominator, diagonal, diameter, digit, division, dodecahedron, ellipse, equals, equation, equilateral, even, exponential, factor, factorial, formula, fraction, frequency, function, graph, helix, hemisphere, heptagon, hexagon, hyperbola, hypotenuse, icosahedron, imaginary number, improper fraction, index, infinity, integer, integral, intersection, irrational number, isosceles, locus, logarithm or log, lowest common denominator, lowest common multiple, Mandelbrot set, matrix, mean, median, minus, mode, multiplication, natural logarithm, natural number, node, nonagon, number, numerator, oblong, obtuse angle, octagon, octahedron, odd, open set, operation, operator, ordinal number, origin, parabola, parallel, parallelogram, pentagon, percentage, perfect number, pi, plus, polygon, polyhedron, polynomial, power, prime number, prism, probability, product, proof, proper fraction, Pythagoras' theorem, quadrant, quadratic equation, quadrilateral, quotient, radian, radius, ratio, rational number, real number, reciprocal, rectangle, recurring decimal, reflex angle, remainder, rhombus, right angle, right-angled triangle, root, scalar, scalene, secant, sector, semicircle, set, significant figures, simultaneous equations, sine, slide rule, solid, sphere, square, square root, strange attractor, subset, subtraction, sum, surd, tangent, tetrahedron, torus, trapezium, triangle, union, universal set, value, variable, vector, Venn diagram, volume, vulgar fraction, x-axis, y-axis, z-axis, zero
Mathematicians  Maria Gaetana Agnesi (Italian), Howard Hathaway Aiken (U.S.), Jean Le Rond Alembert (French), André Marie Ampère (French), Anaximander (Greek), Apollonius of Perga (Greek), Archimedes (Greek), Charles Babbage (English), Johann Jakob Balmer (Swiss), Daniel Bernoulli (Swiss), Jacques Bernoulli (Swiss), Jean Bernoulli (Swiss), Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (German), Hermann Bondi (British), George Boole (English), Henry Briggs (English), Augustin Louis Cauchy (French), Arthur Cayley (English), Rudolf Julius Clausius (German), Isidore Auguste Comte (French), George Howard Darwin (English), Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (German), John Dee (English), René Descartes (French), Diophantus (Greek), Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (German), Albert Einstein (U.S.), Eratosthenes (Greek), Euclid (Greek), Eudoxus of Cnidus (Greek), Leonhard Euler (Swiss), Pierre de Fermat (French), Leonardo Fibonacci (Italian), Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (French), Galileo (Italian), Karl Friedrich Gauss (German), Josiah Willard Gibbs (U.S.), Kurt Gödel (U.S.), Edmund Gunter (English), Edmund Halley (English), William Rowan Hamilton (Irish), Hero (Greek), David Hilbert (German), Karl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (German), Herman Kahn (U.S.), Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (Soviet), Joseph Louis Lagrange (French), Pierre Simon Laplace (French), Adrien Marie Legendre (French), Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz (German), Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (Russian), Ada Lovelace (English), Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (French), Gerardus Mercator (Flemish), Hermann Minkowski (German), John Napier (Scottish), Isaac Newton (English), Omar Khayyám (Persian), Nicole d'Oresme (French), Pappus of Alexandria (Greek), Blaise Pascal (French), Karl Pearson (English), Charles Sanders Peirce (U.S.), William George Penney (English), Roger Penrose (English), Jules Henri Poincaré (French), Siméon Denis Poisson (French), Ptolemy (Greek), Pythagoras (Greek), Johann Müller Regiomontanus (German), Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (German), Bertrand Russell (English), Claude Shannon (U.S.), Brook Taylor (English), Thales (Greek), Evangelista Torricelli (Italian), Alan Mathison Turing (English), John von Neumann (U.S.), Hermann Weyl (U.S.), Alfred North Whitehead (English), Norbert Wiener (U.S.)
Translations
wiskunde
رياضةرياضياترِيَاضِيَاتٌرياضِيات، عِلْم الحِساب
математика
matemàticamatemàtiques
matematika
matematik
matematiko
matemaatika
ریاضیات
matematiikka
מתמטיקה
गणित
matematika
matematika
mathematica
matematika
stærðfræðistærîfræîi
数学
수학
mathematica
matematikamatematikasmatematinismatematiškaimatematiškas
matemātika
ഗണിതം
matematică
matematikapočty
matematika
математика
matematik
hisabati
คณิตศาสตร์
matematikhesamhesap kuramı
математика
ریاضی
toán học

mathematics

[ˌmæθəˈmætɪks] NSINGmatemáticas fpl

mathematics

[ˌmæθəˈmætɪks] nmathématiques fpl

mathematics

n
singMathematik f
pl the mathematics of this are complicateddas ist mathematisch kompliziert

mathematics

[ˌmæθˈmætɪks] nsgmatematica

mathematics

(mӕθəˈmӕtiks) noun singular
(abbreviation maths (mӕθs) , (American) math (mӕθ) ) the science or branch of knowledge dealing with measurements, numbers and quantities.
ˌmatheˈmatical adjective
1. of or done by mathematics. mathematical tables.
2. very exact or accurate. mathematical precision.
ˌmatheˈmatically adverb
ˌmathemaˈtician (-ˈtiʃən) noun
1. a person who is good at mathematics. For a young boy, he's quite a mathematician!
2. someone who works in mathematics. He is a mathematician with a local engineering firm.

mathematics

رِيَاضِيَاتٌ matematika matematik Mathematik μαθηματικά matemáticas matematiikka mathématiques matematika matematica 数学 수학 wiskunde matematikk matematyka matemática математика matematik คณิตศาสตร์ matematik toán học 数学
References in classic literature ?
I've been working away at mathematics till my head is in a muddle, and I'm going to freshen my wits by a brisk turn.
Though, upon the whole, I greatly admire and even love the brave, the honest, and learned Captain; yet I take it very ill of him that he should so utterly ignore that case-bottle, seeing what a faithful friend and comforter it must have been, while with mittened fingers and hooded head he was studying the mathematics aloft there in that bird's nest within three or four perches of the pole.
It was porkmaking by machinery, porkmaking by applied mathematics.
If my department were geography or mathematics, I believe I should feel that I was accomplishing something, for in those branches application and industry work wonders; but in English literature and composition one yearns for brains, for appreciation, for imagination
I say, No mathematics, no industry, no ambition, no firmness of purpose.
The altitude of the gallows that would turn to water and quench it, no functionary, by any stretch of mathematics, was able to calculate successfully.
Adams, our head-boy, who had a turn for mathematics, had made a calculation, I was informed, of the time this Dictionary would take in completing, on the Doctor's plan, and at the Doctor's rate of going.
Whence it sometimes happened that the more reasonable a student was in mathematics, the more unreasonable she was in the affairs of real life, concerning which few trustworthy postulates have yet been ascertained.
My father now and then sending me small sums of money, I laid them out in learning navigation, and other parts of the mathematics, useful to those who intend to travel, as I always believed it would be, some time or other, my fortune to do.
He must know mathematics, for at every turn some occasion for them will present itself to him; and, putting it aside that he must be adorned with all the virtues, cardinal and theological, to come down to minor particulars, he must, I say, be able to swim as well as Nicholas or Nicolao the Fish could, as the story goes; he must know how to shoe a horse, and repair his saddle and bridle; and, to return to higher matters, he must be faithful to God and to his lady; he must be pure in thought, decorous in words, generous in works, valiant in deeds, patient in suffering, compassionate towards the needy, and, lastly, an upholder of the truth though its defence should cost him his life.
I was especially delighted with the mathematics, on account of the certitude and evidence of their reasonings; but I had not as yet a precise knowledge of their true use; and thinking that they but contributed to the advancement of the mechanical arts, I was astonished that foundations, so strong and solid, should have had no loftier superstructure reared on them.
Though it cannot be pretended that the principles of moral and political knowledge have, in general, the same degree of certainty with those of the mathematics, yet they have much better claims in this respect than, to judge from the conduct of men in particular situations, we should be disposed to allow them.

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