Like equatorial lowland forests, these forests have phanerophytes and tree species with mesophyllous
leaves contributing the greatest number of species to the forests' lifeform and leaf size spectra (Zhu et al.
forests (mesophytic), which were designated as manacales by Leon (1946) and as canelones by Samek (1974).
Overall, our data indicate that: a) PRI is an important indicator of leaf water status as evident from RWC; b) because leaf conductance did not limit photosynthesis when photorespiration was suppressed, holm oak, and in general sclerophyllous species, will respond to future elevated [CO2] significantly more than mesophyllous
plants; c) PRI can be used to predict changes in the performance of holm oak subjected to physiological water stress, whereas caution is needed under severe drought.
tomentosum are species that occur in open fire-prone plant formations, but also at the edge or inside gallery, deciduous and mesophyllous
forests (Gribel 1988, Silva & Scariot 2004).
In transition zones, thornforests and deciduous forests intermix, although deciduous forests can be distinguished by its greater height (unbroken canopy is 10-20 m above ground), larger leafage (macrophyllous and mesophyllous
taxa dominate contrasting with the microphyllous shrubs and trees that dominate thornforests), the reduced dominance of thorny and succulent plants, and by strong penetration of species, genera, and families showing a tropical distribution, including epiphytic orchids and bromeliads.