Manipulation of the monoamines
serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine is fundamental to managing major depressive disorder (MDD), yet only nonselective MAOIs directly promote neurotransmission of all 3 by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B.
VMAT2 is a protein concentrated in the human brain that is primarily responsible for re-packaging and transporting monoamines
(dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine) in pre-synaptic neurons.
Tyrosine, which is derived from phenylalanine and tryptophan, serves as the precursor for the synthesis of monoamines
in the brain.
The focus on monoamines
has arguably been to the detriment of more novel research and drug development, but this is changing.
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines
on Sprague-Dawley rats.
Next generation antidepressants; moving beyond monoamines
to discover novel treatment strategies for mood disorders.
The proteins--found naturally in eggs, poultry, milk products, and some nuts and seeds--are important precursors of the mood-regulating brain monoamines
dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
To develop treatments that are compatible with breastfeeding, the intake of dietary supplements of monoamine
precursors in the early postpartum period would be a promising strategy to maintain a sufficient balance of monoamines
during this time.
Tetrabenazine decreases the jerky, involuntary movements of chorea in Huntington's disease by reversibly inhibiting vesicular monoamine
transporter 2, depleting monoamines
presynaptically and depleting dopamine preferentially over norepinephrine and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine, according to its manufacturer, Prestwick Pharmaceuticals Inc.
The current methods used to analyze CSF monoamines
and metabolites in clinical and research laboratories rely mostly on reversed-phase HPLC coupled with EC detection (19, 46-52).
Moreover, when measured 2 weeks after the end of exposure, the levels of various monoamines
and the numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (T[H.
are named because of their synthesis from amino acid precursors--tryptophan for serotonin and tyrosine for norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine.