Hale provides a nice account of Wallace's often overlooked address to London's Anthropological Society that attempted to reconcile its avowed polygenism with the monogenism
espoused in Darwin and Thomas Henry Huxley's Ethnological Society.
It is impossible, for instance, to understand Desor's publications on Egyptian flints or those on Siberian grave finds without realizing, even if this is never explicitly referred to in these archaeological works, that the debates about the Egyptian Neolithic or the Russian Bronze Age were instrumental in another discussion --the major anthropological debate on monogenism
versus polygenism (i.
Embedded in this debate over racial fusion were conflicting debates in France over how races originated: Paul Broca's monogenism
, "which posited an original race from which all subsequent races had emerged," and Arthur de Gobineau's polygenism, "which argued that a variety of 'pure' races had existed during the early period of human life.
Cohen, implied that d'Eichthal was a believer in monogenism
, describing the racial mixing he suggested as a"means of improving the black race" (236-7).
Hopkins often articulated her monogenism
through references to the apostle Paul's "one blood" decree, and she maintained arguments for the decree's scientific implications.
Eventually both Evangelicals and polygenists were trumped by the new monogenism
of the Darwinists who argued for the evolution of a single human species but at different rates that had led to longstanding and profound differences between 'races' measured physically according to the shape of the skull, the hue of the skin or the curl of the hair, or culturally through the progress of institutions, intellect or morality (Kenny 2007; Stocking 1968:56; 1987:148-50).
Luckily for the Roman Catholic Church, recent research indicates Homo sapiens entered history in Africa, which means monogenism
and the doctrine of original sin are safe.
Crossbloods are a postmodern tribal bloodline, an encounter with racialism, colonial duplicities, sentimental monogenism
, and generic culture.