Although typically found within the bone marrow, extraosseous myelomatous
collections referred to as extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) are rarely found in the head and neck region, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.
extraocular muscle paresis or direct myelomatous
infiltrate, papilledema), and corneal deposition (crystal or copper) to opportunistic infections of ocular structures.
Pleural Effusion: Case report and review of the literature.
99m]-MDP are ineffective in demonstrating myelomatous
A wide range of etiologic factors may cause pleural effusion in MM (Table 1) (2, 4-7); however, actual myelomatous
pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases having been reported worldwide (8, 9).
Other underlying pathologies include: Cushing's syndrome, primary biliary cirrhosis, osteomalacia, rheumatoid arthritis, myelomatous
disease, and endocrine disorders such as hyperparathyroidism (1,9).
In the mouse model, it was demonstrated that DKK1 is a key player in multiple myeloma and that blocking DKK1 activity in myelomatous
bones reduces osteolytic bone resorption, increases bone formation, and helps control multiple myeloma growth (63).
Histopathological and microradiographical observations on myelomatous
pleural effusion-Is onset of effusion a new prognostic factor?
changes, however, were absent on radiographic studies, and serum calcium, B2M, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine levels were all within normal limits.
Reiley is most widely known for developing the Balloon Kyphoplasty technique, used worldwide to repair osteoporotic and myelomatous
spinal compression fractures.
Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced axial MR image (Fig 1) revealed a large myelomatous
lesion with well-defined borders in the left frontal bone with associated soft tissue component.