2 ) because of the risk of nephrogenic
systemic fibrosis, these agents are not considered to be nephrotoxic.
Gadolinium use has been linked to onset of rare but often crippling nephrogenic
systemic fibrosis, especially in patients with reduced kidney function.
Juvenile systemic sclerosis involves the skin, muscle, and visceral organs; therefore, the differential diagnosis should include other multiple-system organ diseases with skin involvement including juvenile dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease, SLE, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, overlap syndrome, eosinophilic fasciitis, chronic graft versus host disease, nephrogenic
systemic fibrosis, phenylketonuria with sclerodermatous skin lesions, and syndromes of premature aging.
Other diagnoses on the differential for a calcified renal mass in this particular age group include Wilms' tumour, nephrogenic
rest, renal cell carcinoma, extra-adrenal neuroblastoma, calcified hematoma and post-infectious (e.
Miscellaneous arthropathies including synovial tumors and foreign body synovitis and nephrogenic
Examples include nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus from aquaporin 2 mutations, vitamin D-resistant rickets from SLC34A3  [solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 3] mutations, and mutations in SCNN1B (sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, [beta] subunit) or SCNN1G (sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, [gamma] subunit) in Liddle syndrome.
24) Several benign papillary lesions in the urinary bladder, such as polypoid cystitis and nephrogenic
adenomas, should be differentiated from papillary urothelial carcinomas.
In healthy humans, urinary exosome analysis has identified over 1000 proteins from different segments of the nephron, but, most importantly, 34 of them were implicated in many kidney diseases such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 1 (polycystin-1), autosomal dominant and recessive nephrogenic
diabetes (aquaporin-2), antenatal Bartter syndrome type 1 (Na-K-2Cl symport), and Gitelman's syndrome (thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter) (45).
systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis.
It took four years to diagnose him with nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus - which afflicts just one in 25,000 people in the UK.
SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS (NSF) See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs.
In severe hypercalcemia, multisystem symptoms can be observed as follows: neurologic symptoms: stupor, coma, confusion, and lethargy; gastrointestinal symptoms: constipation, peptic ulcus and pancreatitis, urinary symptoms: nephrolithiasis, renal failure, and nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus (17-20).