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Pediatric non-Wilms' tumours, which are a small part pediatric solid tumours, include clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, mesoblastic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, malignant rhabdoid tumour, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), renal medullary carcinoma, intrarenal neuroblastoma, and renal lymphoma.
Cystic nephroma has a female predominance and can be multiloculated; however, it is lined by a single layer of flattened epithelium with indistinct nucleoli and has ovarian-like stroma within the septae.
For this reason, Quercus suber trunks that are covered with moss are colonized by certain humicolous species such as Nephroma resupinatum and Normandina pulchella, which grow in wet woodlands.
Benign tumors include lymphangioma, cystic nephroma, and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor.
DICER1-related conditions include PPB, SLCT, cystic nephroma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, certain thyroid conditions and rare tumors of the cervix, among others.
One needs to distinguish, for example, vascular malformations from vascular tumors, lipoblastoma from liposarcoma, and mesoblastic nephroma from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.
The differential diagnosis of cystic angiomyolipomas involves distinguishing between mixed epithelial and stromal tumors (previously classified as cystic hamartomas of the renal pelvis, adult mesoblastic nephroma, or renal pelvic or cortical hamartomas), cystic nephroma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, liposarcoma and vascular malformations.
2003) looked at the diversity of Nostoc in Nephroma species and found that those also having green algal photobionts were less specific in the acquisition of Nostoc cyanobiont but those with Nostoc as the only photobiont acquired a narrower range of strains.
The differential diagnosis of renal masses includes simple or complex cyst; the most common renal mass; renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common primary malignancy; angiomyolipoma (AML), a hamartoma composed of smooth muscle, fat, and arteries; oncocytoma, a benign renal lesion with a characteristic but nondiagnostic central scar; multilocular cystic nephroma (MLCN), a benign, well-encapsulated, multilocular noninfiltrating renal tumor; renal abscess, which can present as a thick walled, complex cystic mass; renal metastasis, usually presenting as a single or multiple small solid mass(es); and lymphoma, derived almost exclusively from systemic disease.
These tumors have been reported under various names such as leiomyomatous renal hamartoma, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, cystic hamartoma of the renal pelvis, solitary multilocular cysts of the kidney, multilocular renal cyst with mullerian-like stroma, and adult metanephric stromal tumor (4-12).
Thus, all or a high percentage of clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic kidney-related RCC, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, cystic nephroma, and oncocytoma are positive for PAX2.
Less commonly encountered masses include renal lymphoma (primary or secondary), fat-poor angiomyolipoma, multilocular cystic nephroma, oncocytoma, and metastatic disease.
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