35-38] These are not new findings, but it is currently uncertain whether a raised UA acts as a nephrotoxin
, vasculotoxin, or marker of a high acid-ash (protein) diet or reduced eGFR.
Ochratoxin A, a well known nephrotoxin
(class 2B carcinogen) has been associated with fatal human kidney disease referred to as balkan endemic nephropathy.
Citrinin was investigated as an antibiotic (Wong and Koehler, 1981), but relative toxicity studies showed that this secondary metabolite acted in animals as a nephrotoxin
(Betina, 1989), damaged the proximal tubules of the kidney (Phillips et al.
identified the Nrf2 pathway as the most significant signaling response in renal epithelial cells challenged with nephrotoxin
(Wilmes et al.
Aspirin can also be a nephrotoxin
despite the benefit of antiplatelet activity.
Acute tubular necrosis was present, which was consistent with a nephrotoxin
AKI has not been reported previously in users of SCs and might be associated with 1) a previously unrecognized toxicity, 2) a contaminant or a known nephrotoxin
present in a single batch of drug, or 3) a new SC compound entering the market.
It is very likely that a possible nephrotoxin
adulterated the preparation used by our patients.
The scorpion venom is a water-soluble, antigenic, complex mixture of several low molecular weight basic proteins, neurotoxins, nucleotides, aminoacids, oligopeptides, nephrotoxin
, cardipotoxins, hemolytic toxins, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A, hyaluroinidase, acetylcholineesterase, glycosaminoglycans, histamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyptamine and proteins that inhibit protease, angiotensinase and succinate-dehydrogenese, ribonuclease, 5--nucleotidase and others chemicals (2,7).
Lead is particularly neurotoxic in children, cadmium is a nephrotoxin
, and excess fluoride affects teeth and bone, while selenium causes Enshi disease in the case of excess or Keshan syndrome and Kaschin-Beck disease in the case of deficiency.
A current example is the presence of ochratoxin A, a human carcinogen and nephrotoxin
, in wines.
Editorial Note: DEG, a known nephrotoxin
and hepatotoxin, is used in industrial solvents and antifreeze.