Subsequent chapters address placebo design, active placebos, and other design features for identifying, minimizing, and characterizing placebo response; psychological processes that can bias responses; the case for changing the term "placebo effect"; effects in complementary and alternative medicine; meta-analyses and experimental studies; the role of desire, expectation, and reduced negative emotions in placebo anti-hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome; placebo, pain, and surgery; placebo interventions for pain; how communication between clinicians and patients may impact pain perception; nocebos
in daily clinical practice; recommendations for pain management; and ethical issues.
Sleep paralysis: nightmares, nocebos
, and the mind-body connection.
Section Four, "Essays and Commentaries," examines aromatherapy and essential oils and homeopathy, the placebo effect, and herbs as a token and nocebos
Many people, including health professionals, are less familiar with the nocebo
These are not the same as nocebo
effects, which are the responses to a substance believed by the subject to be able to cause harm.
effect is one that turns on the expectations of no benefit or even negative changes.
Placebo and nocebo
responses, cortisol, and circulating betaendorphin.