Lexical complexity in written texts is usually associated with features of dense text such as nominalisations
, but, as expected in a children's test, the BST had few examples of nominalisation
For example: 'multiple' is an adjective; 'the multiples of 10' is a noun; 'multiply' is a verb; 'multiplication' is a noun, a nominalisation
of the process 'multiply'.
It provides a brief overview of Field's nominalisation
program--which Colyvan calls the hard road to nominalism--before canvassing alternative lines of resistance, so-called 'easy roads' to nominalism.
According to Tomlinson, this was a key factor in the nominalisation
of Fijian mana (2006: 177).
This can then be trimmed down with some nifty linguistic techniques such as word abbreviation, grammatical ellipsis, nominalisation
and precise vocabulary choices to reach the magic 140 limit.
There is significant grammatical complexity in some of the clauses and the nominal groups and there is a preference for the nominalisation
of processes--'investigation', 'proof, inability', 'certainty'--and for the use of passive and agentless constructions--'engendered', 'demanded' 'convict' 'required'.
In order to reduce the density of information through the use of nominalisation
, the experiential meanings of the nominalised items were unpacked into clauses in the revised text (e.
The same seems to apply to nominalisation
, the percentage of which in L2 is always lower than in L1 where the highest value of nominalisation
appears in writing (L1 2.
occurs where a verb is changed to a noun We hid the book The book was hidden.
94) This nominalisation
of capital and labour marginalised consideration of the actors making decisions and presented pressing challenges as immutable facts.
They must be guided to see how different linguistic devices such as use of passive constructions, nominalisation
, quotation, word choice, ambiguity, etc.
of adjectives implies a Platonic realm that we approach with greater or lesser success but which fails to answer the sceptical question of whether we are making progress in approaching these absolutes.