A recent large, population-based study assessed antibiotic prescribing patterns for more than 185,000 elderly patients who presented in the outpatient setting with a confirmed nonbacterial
acute upper respiratory infection.
24-27) This is partly because prostatitis is an umbrella term for many conditions, including acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic nonbacterial
prostatitis, inflammatory and noninflammatory prostatodynia (prostate pain), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.
Noroviruses, the main cause of nonbacterial
acute gastroenteritis outbreaks (1), are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses within the family Caliciviridae (2).
Compared to other biomarkers, PCT as a novel inflammatory index has a high value in identifying bacterial infection and it is an ideal biomarker in distinguishing bacterial and nonbacterial
Other negative outcomes include nonbacterial
urethral inflammation, urethral strictures and mechanical trauma.
12 This dental erosion is defined as nonbacterial
chemical reaction which releases the Ca, OH and PO mineral ions from the enamel hydroxyapatite.
An EKC case was defined as an ophthalmologist-diagnosed acute nonbacterial
eye disease, characterized by conjunctival inflammation and lacrimation with >2 of the following symptoms: foreign body sensation, light sensitivity, eye pain, or conjunctival edema.
implicated bacterial plaque deposits as the primary, direct factor in the development of periodontitis and resulted in the abandonment of former concepts that involved nonbacterial
factors, such as trauma from occlusion, systemic conditions, and diet.
7%) in bacterial meningitis compared to the nonbacterial
Patients were classified into two diagnostic groups: (1) immunosuppression with nonbacterial
sepsis and (2) immuno-suppression with bacterial sepsis.
Successfully commercialized herbal drugs with various indications that were developed through academic research and development include: Vitex negundo tablets and syrup for nonbacterial
cough; Blumea balsamifera tablets for urolithiasis and diuresis; Cassia alata lotion for fungal infection; and Mentha cordifolia tablets as analgesic.
The lack of resolution of the leukocytosis with appropriate antibiotic treatment suggested a nonbacterial
cause for the sinusitis, such as fungal infection, which was only present within the trachea at necropsy.