Nevertheless, researchers may have adequate subject-matter knowledge to be able to identify outcomes that are not expected to change in response to the intervention of interest, which have been referred to as control outcomes or nonequivalent
Inaccurate or nonequivalent
comparison could lead to individuals making poor decisions that may cost them money in the long term.
This result renders the groups nonequivalent
on a critical skill, and it is evidence that nonfluent English speakers were less likely to finish the pre-K year.
The researchers used a quantitative pretest-posttest nonequivalent
control group quasi-experimental design to determine if there is a significant difference in content knowledge acquisition between traditional and flipped classroom methods.
The research method used in this study due to lack of randomly selected samples is quasi-experimental based on nonequivalent
control group design On this design E is the symbol of the group scheme, C symbolizes the control group, 01 is the symbol of pretest, 02 is the symbol of the post-test and X is the symbol of the independent variable.
A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent
control group design was used to study the effects of CSR on informational text comprehension using the Qualitative Reading Inventory-5 (QRI-5) and Georgia's Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT).
The nine group research designs presented in this study were (a) pre-experimental designs: the one-shot case study, the one-group pretest-posttest design, the static group comparison; (b) quasiexperimental designs: nonequivalent
control-group design, counterbalanced design, the multiple time series design; and (c) true experimental designs: the pretest-posttest control group design, the Solomon four-group design, and the posttest-only control group design.
Thus, this study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent
control group design.
1]H-NMR spectra includes the following: (1) the number of peaks, which indicates the ranging nature of the magnetic nonequivalent
protons in molecules and the number of species: (2) peak intensity (area), which indicates the number of each type of protons (relative); (3) peak shift ([zeta]), which indicates the chemical environment and position of each type of protons: (4) the number of peak splitting, which obeys the n + 1 rule and indicates the number of protons of the adjacent carbon atom; and (5) coupling constant (J).
To examine our hypotheses, we use a nonequivalent
group pattern-matching design.
All iterations of the studies in this research (Wilhelm, 2010) involved the nonequivalent
control group quasi-experimental design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963) which can be used when true randomization of subjects and extraneous variables cannot be achieved.
Main yield stresses were obtained with uniaxial upsetting while shear yield stresses were obtained with hat tests  in each nonequivalent