But in all these instances, and in order for the mechanism to have its unifying, culture-forming and culture-preserving effect, it seems to be necessary for the innocence or at least the nonguilt
of the scapegoated victim to remain veiled.
nonguilt appeal) x 2 (environmental hyperopia: local vs.
Guilt and nonguilt appeals were developed based on Chang's (2012) formula.
The analysis of the results of participants with external ELOC indicated that, when promoting a global issue, the guilt appeal was more effective than the nonguilt appeal.
The results indicated that, when a local issue was being promoted, there was a significant difference between the guilt and nonguilt appeal.
For participants with an external ELOC, the guilt appeal was more effective than the nonguilt appeal in promoting global issues.