New geochemical data allows the local tectonics and mantle dynamics during the obduction
of the Khanozai and Muslim Bagh ophiolites to be further constrained, as to date, these are the youngest discovered igneous intrusions within the area (- 55 - 35 Ma).
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Viewed from the highway, light brown Simsima Formation overlies palaeo-hills mainly composed of black Semail ophiolite (former oceanic crust / upper mantle) and Hawasina Group sediments which were tectonically emplaced by obduction
during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous).
Then it was astonishing to find out the special geology of Oman -- it is the result of something called obduction
which means Oman is literally the ocean floor pushed up through plate tectonics.
During this time interval the sea-floor spreading in one and ophiolite obduction
in the other area occurred (Andersen et al.
process, possibly caused by the arrival at the subduction zone of some oceanic relief (guyots chain, oceanic ridge, oceanic plateau, etc.
Following this process, eventually in upper Cretaceous and Paleocene eras simultaneous with closure of the Neotethyan Ocean, some parts of the oceanic crust have had obduction
The metamorphism is related not only to overthrusting and the obduction
of oceanic crust (Restrepo & Toussaint, 1976; Arias & Caballero, 1978) but also to a subduction zone setting (Sanchez, 1988).
Eyles and I also found most informative the IGC field guide by Neale (1972), because this booklet contains the first fully-formed plate-tectonic reconstruction of the island, in which the opening and closure of the Iapetus Ocean and the obduction
of the Bay of Islands Ophiolite are well described (see also Geological Survey of Canada 1992).
Linthout K, Helmers H, Sopaheluwakan J (1997) Late Miocene obduction
and microplate migration around the southern Banda Sea and the closure of the Indonesian Seaway.
The initial stages of southward obduction
of ophiolites resulted in subsidence of the Arabian Platform and deposition of Campanian-Maastrichtian terrigenous sediments [23, 24].
Did this thickening occured before or after the obduction
of the large Santa Elena San Juan ophiolite?