The antibody test found osteocalcin
in the bones of hadrosaurs, a ceratopsian, and a sauropod dinosaur.
We hypothesise that defective N-glycosylation impairs bone formation by osteoblasts, leading to the observed osteoporosis, and, likely, reduced bone-derived osteocalcin
levels, which will in turn result in hampered insulin release and insulin resistance, with the observed obesity as a consequence.
Two bone turnover markers--serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and osteocalcin
(OC)--declined in the dried-plum group.
28] found increased serum osteocalcin
in individuals on oral 20 mg of statin daily for four weeks.
After being exposed for 48 h to 100 [micro]g/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin
, Osteonectin, crosslaps, Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone were measured using ADVIA Centaur automated competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (Bayer HealthCare).
For example, the Gla-protein in bone, called osteocalcin
, is responsible for making sure calcium is deposited in bones, while the Gla-protein in arterial walls, called matrix Gla protein, prevents calcium from being deposited in arteries.
Each sample (2 [micro]L cDNA) was tested with real-time SYBR Green PCR reagent (Life Technologies) with specific primers: 18S (forward: AGTCCCTG CCCTTTGTACACA; reverse: CGAT CCGAGGGCCTCACTA), GAPDH (forward: TGGCACAGTCAAGGCTGAGA; reverse: CTTCTGAGTGGCAGTGATGG), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) (forward: AAGC CAT C G AG G AACT TT CA GA; reverse: TCAC AGGA AATTTTGA GCTGGC), and osteocalcin
(OCN): (forward: TCTGACAAAGCCTTCATGTCCA; reverse: AACGGTGGTGCCATAGAT).
Immunohistochemical staining for osteocalcin
and osteonectin was performed on the confirmed osteosarcoma in the tibiotarsus and the spindle cell sarcoma mass.
Reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to identify the marker genes 28 days after differentiation; these were osteocalcin
The most well known of these proteins are osteocalcin
for bone building and Matrix-GLA for redirecting calcium from arteries.
Biochemical markers of bone formation by Osteocalcin
and Bone-ALP and resorption by N-terminal collagen type 1 (NTX) and C-terminal collagen type 1(CTX) for bone turnover were assessed.