4] CAC involves expression of an altered phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and expression of bone-related proteins such as osteopontin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin
, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).
is regarded as an important indicator of osteogenesis.
Juarez conducts investigations of osteocalcin
and bone density changes in archeological bone as an indicator of diabetes prevalence.
Vitamin K is a bone quality marker which aids to carboxylates osteocalcin
to form bone matrix.
Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained to measure urinary creatinine and calcium levels: blood samples were obtained from the abdominal aorta via an heparinized syringe from which plasma calcium, creatinine, and osteocalcin
levels were measured.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations of osteocalcin
, adiponectin, and TNF-[alpha] with IR in PCOS.
Bone metabolism was evaluated by determining serum levels of osteocalcin
(OC) as a marker of bone formation, and urinary pyrilinks-D (PYD) and beta-CrossLaps (B-CTx) as markers of bone resorption (18).
We measured both C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and osteocalcin
levels via electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.
Thereafter, the concentrations of osteocalcin
, FGF23, PTH, 1,25-(OH)2D3, total calcium, and inorganic phosphorus were measured using the frozen serum samples.
During physical exertion the bones produce a hormone called osteocalcin
that increases muscle performance, scientists found.
and P1NP are two proteins associated with bone formation and their levels in blood are an indicator of bone health.
Clinical and biochemical markers--including disease activity score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin
(a bone metabolism marker that is elevated with low vitamin K status), C- reactive protein, and matrix metalloproteinase, an enzyme that degrades collagens and other tissue components correlated with systemic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis--were assessed before and after the treatment period.