People who identify with all humanity are likely to show greater concern for out-group
Sporer explains the cross-race effect: "Studies of recognition of faces of an ethnic group different from one's own reveal a robust recognition deficit for faces of the respective out-group
and tendency to respond less cautiously with respect to out-group
It is very easy to get that filter bubble, you can develop an abusive out-group
behaviour where lies are spread very easily about the people that you don't know.
With regard to in-groupfavouritism, people generally think well of strangers but expect better treatment from in-group members in comparison to out-group
The Chinese government monitors social media carefully for "subversive" literature, but the research has found that social media provides platforms for Chinese Muslims to speak out and interact with out-group
members despite the existence of strong online anti-Muslim sentiment.
Metastereotype is defined as the belief that in-group members expect out-group
members to hold toward them (Vorauer, Main, & O'Connell, 1998).
The sixth chapter, which appears as a continuation of the previous two, "Mind-sets for Extremists," proposes some personality traits for extremist types: Disgust, Need for Closure, and In-Group and Out-Group
First, leaders of the in-group try to persuade their members that the out-group
is systematically different in major ways: appearance, culture, and especially shared moral values.
These "over the hill" women are treated as symbolic rather than legitimate members of the academic community, which further reinforces their out-group
13) Moreover, they will perceive mainly negative characteristics among out-group
members, and generalize this perception to the whole out-group
Identity formation through nationalism is often accompanied by ethnic cleansing and violence to establish in- and out-group
identities upon which to base societal resource distribution resulting from greater productivity.
When groups sharing similar characteristics interact, intergroup relations occur (Sheriff, 1966), and they often display favoritism to members of their in-group and bias against members of the out-group